Meaning of Terrorism
Terrorism is an unlawful and intentional use of violence to achieve a political aim against a country and its citizens. The Term Terrorist originated from the French revolution in the 18th century, It gained attention in the 19th century 1970 exactly During the dispute of northern Ireland, Basque Country, and the Israel and Palestine attacks also during September 11, 2001, attacks in New York.
History Of Terrorism
The roots of Terrorism can be traced to the 1st century AD, though some radical groups offshoot of the political movement which was active in Judea Province at the beginning of the 1st AD was in fact terrorist.
The Term Terrorism originated from the French Philosopher Francois-Noel Babeuf in 1974 during the reign of terror in the French revolution. In January 1985, The Italian Patriot Felice Orsini Set up three bombs in Napoleon the III instead killed eight passers-by and injured 142 people, this attack inspired the development of early terrorist groups. The first organization of modern terrorism was in 1958 the revolutionary Irish nationalist group that carried out a terrorist attack in England. This group encouraged the Fenian dynamite campaign in 1881 which was one of the first terrorist attacks, Instead of terrorists based on political assassination this one is based on timed bomb explosives.
Another Terrorist group was found and “propaganda by the deeded in Russia in 1878 Narodnaya Volya, the revolutionary group was inspired by Sergei Nechayev and propaganda by the deed.
The group’s ideology is on Target killing of the leaders of oppression they were the origin of violence by small groups of people, they were convinced that the development of dynamite and the widespread use of it will enable them to strike directly and with discrimination.
Causes Of Terrorism
The main causes of terrorism vary from inequality, poverty, technology, globalization, Islamic fundamentalist, other causes includes
- Spillover from a neighboring country’s media can influence the pattern of terrorism by enhancing agenda settings, terrorism can occur in a variety of manners and instances.
- The underdevelopment of a nation includes religion and ideology.
- Poor society, this is a society with a weak state structure they are more exposed to civil war.
- Social changes brought through modernization enables terrorism through mobility and widespread communication to the target audience.
- The failed state contributes to international terrorism, ongoing conflict within a country facilitates transnational terrorism
Terrorism And Economic Impact
- Terrorism affects primarily investment and consumption patterns, the impact of terrorism id $US 33 billion in 2018, terrorism has cost the world economy $US 855 billion. The highest economic impact was the September 11, 2001 attack in the United States.
The Composition Of Impact Of Terrorism From Year 2000-2018
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Number Of Death Tolls Of The Most Affecated Economy
Afghanistan suffered the highest economic burden with a GDP of 22% in the year 2018
The second most affected economy in Iraq the terrorism impact on Iraq’s economy was about 27% of it GDP and Iraq suffered 3373 incident with over 10,00 death in the year 2014.
Factors Leading To Terrorism
The collapse of a state are contributors of international terrorism, when there are ongoing wars within a country terrorist group spring up, arms conflicts also facilitate international terrorism.
When a state is transiting from military to democracy, the level of transnational terrorism is high especially when the transition process isn’t smooth.
Resistance to modern changes, when certain groups refuse to accept change, there I widespread target against modernizations.
A poor society with the failed state is exposed to civil war, there are high chances of terrorist springing up.
Types Of Terrorism
=> There are various types of terrorism;
1. Religious Terrorism- Religious Extremist have taken over national separatism and are the cause of the main terrorism attack all over the world
2. Non-State Groups-Groups which are note part of the state and are in opposition are referred to has terrorist
3. State Terrorist-State terrorists are referred to as terrorist acts committed by the state government agency, this concept is used to describe oppression by the state against its own people.
Financing terrorism ranges from activities of organised groups of people, terrorist requires significant funding for undertaking terrorist attack and maintaining the organisation.
Funding of terrorist requires significant funds to be moved across jurisdiction, this can be done through financial market or unregulated channel
Sourcing of funds by terrorist includes drug trafficking, kidnapping, robbery, money laundry, ransom, illegal arms trade, protection, contributions and donations.
- In November 2004, the united nation secretary general defines terrorism as an intention to cause bodily harm to civilians also with the purpose of intimidating a population and compelling a country or international organization to abstain from an act.
- Across the planet, the United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism (UNOCT) leads and coordinates an all-of-UN approach to prevent and counter-terrorism and violent extremism.
Top 13 Interesting Facts
1. The role of the media- Media assist with propaganda persuasive communication, terrorism is exploited by media because it has no meaning without media coverage. In this age, terrorists exploit media coverage for strategic purposes.
2. Religious Terrorism– This is terrorism in the name of religion, this type of terrorism is where terrorism is used as a weapon to religious goals
3. Domestic Terrorism– This is a local form of terrorism where citizens are being terrorized within the country and are being targeted by perpetrators
4. Terrorism in Pakistan-Terrorism in Pakistan increased after the 9/11 attacks, but over the years dynamics have caused some terrorists to migrate to Pakistan.
The main terror groups are Tehrik-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and Daesh, these groups have conducted attacks directed towards the Pakistan state. As a result of the effort by the army and state, Pakistan has experienced a huge decline. There has been an improvement in domestic instability.
5. Terrorism in Nigeria– Poverty and illiteracy is a major cause of terrorism in Nigeria, due to various attacks, there has been a high death rate and displacement of communities.
The terrorist organization in Nigeria is known as Boko Haram, they get their funding through illicit activities such as kidnapping, robberies, and looting.
Humanitarian staff and assets have been targeted during the Boko-Haram attack in the North. There is a link between the Al-Qaeda terrorist Jamaat Al Ansaral Muslimeen Fi Bilad al Sudan. They carry out attacks across the north and some part of the west, kidnapping and attacking people on the highway, Laying ambush along the road.
Citizens are advised vigilant and avoid large gatherings and public places, also avoid regular patter of travel as they will be less likely to be kidnapped.
6. Terrorism in Iraq– Iraq is the second country in the world with the highest number of terrorism, the terrorism rate is at 8.682 as of the year 2020. The target for terrorists in Iraq includes residents, compound, oil facilities, citizens, public transport commercial venues including markets, etc.
In December 2017, the minister declared that terrorists have been defeated, Daesh formally ISIL.
However, the terrorist attacks remain and Daesh remains strong while Anbar, Baghdad, Ninewah, Salah-Al-Don, Diyala, and Tam’mim provinces.
7. Terrorism in Afghanistan– The terrorist attack in the United States of America on September 11, 2001, led to the invasion of Afghanistan as they played a key role in that event. The United States has been battling the Taliban and their militant in Afghanistan and Al Qaeda for 20 years.
They were recently pulled out of Afghanistan by the Americans was initiated by the former US President Donald Trump and was executed by the current president Joe Biden, the withdrawal of US soldiers was done before the 21st of August 2021.
8. Terrorism in Syria– Syria had a long history of terrorism dating back to the 1980s and the current city was brought about by the rising of ISIL, al-Nusra, and al-Qaeda groups. The total number of Civilians killed during this civil war totals 131,750. The civil war started in the year 2011, Syrians were enraged by corruption and emboldened by Arab spring and corruption, they took to protest across the streets and demanded accountability from their leaders, this protest allowed ISIS and Al Qaeda, and other terrorist groups to take over 70% of the country.
9. Political Terrorism- This is being described as violent behavior to bring out a fearful environment for a political purpose to its citizens. Terrorism is a sort of political extortion.
10. Non- Political Terrorism– Terrorism not aimed at political purpose.
11. Quasi-Terrorism– A quasi terrorism’s main purpose is to induce terror exams when a felon takes a hostage is being taken.
12. Limited Political Terrorism- This is a revolutionary or an advocate for revolution approach to political terrorism
13. State Terrorism– This is referred to as rule is based on fear and oppression of its citizens