Blood Grouping

Blood Group- 13angle.com

Introduction

  • Everyone human has blood of similar color but not similar blood group/blood type. A blood type is a classification of blood, based on the presence and absence of antibodies and inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells. These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system.  There are 8 types of blood groups mainly; A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O-. Blood group O is the most common blood group and AB negative is the rarest of the eight main blood types.

History And Evolution

  • In ancient days many people died due to a lack of blood transfusion and no idea about the blood groups. After the discovery of blood circulation by William Harvey in 1628, few scientists got the idea to transfer blood from one organism to another. Richard Lower transfused blood from one dog to another in 1665 and most of the dogs survived the transfusion. Later in 1667, Richard Lower and Jean-Baptiste Denis transfused blood from animals to humans and a huge number of people died this practice became illegal and for the next 150 years, no studies in blood transfusion were recorded. James Blundell in 1818 took blood for a patient’s husband and gave the patient suffering a post-partum hemorrhage, between 1825 and 1830 he performed ten of these transfusions, with five of the patients showing clinical benefits. In 1900 Karl Landsteiner discovered three human blood groups; A, B, and O blood groups. And was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1930. Then in 1902, Two students A. van Decastello and A. Sturli who worked with Karl Landsteiner discovered the fourth human blood group, the AB.  These 4 blood groups are known as the ABO blood group system. Roger Lee in 1912, defined the terms ‘Universal donor’ and ‘Universal recipient’. He demonstrated that group O blood could be transfused in patients having any one of the four blood groups, while group AB patients could receive blood having any one of the four blood groups. Anticoagulants were introduced in 1914. In 1940, Karl Landsteiner and Alex Weiner discovered Another important blood group system Rh blood type. With all these discoveries, many people’s lives were saved. Blood groupings and blood transfusions play a vital role in human lives.

Types Of Blood Grouping Systems

  • Mainly 2 types of blood grouping systems exist popularly. They include:
  1. ABO Blood grouping system
  2. Rh Blood groping system
  3. Other Blood grouping system

1. ABO Blood Grouping System:-

  • The ABO group system is important during blood donation or blood transfusion. It contains many 4 types of blood groups based on the presence of antigens on red blood cell and antibodies in the plasma.
  1. Group A blood type contains antigen A on red blood cell and antibody B in the plasma.
  2. Group B blood type contains antigen B on red blood cell and antibody A in the plasma.
  3. Group AB blood type contains both A and B antigen on red blood cell and no antibodies (neither A nor B) in the plasma.
  4. Group O blood type contains neither A nor B antigen on red blood cell and both antibodies A and B in the plasma.

BLOOD GROUP

ANTIGEN

ANTIBODY

A

Antigen A

Antibody B

B

Antigen B

Antibody A

AB

Antigen A&B

NO Antibody

O

NO Antigen

Antibody A&B

2. RH Blood Groping System:-

  • (Rhenus) Rh factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. Rh factor is also an antigen and its basically called antigen D. Based on its presence and absence it is positive and negative.

  • If the Rh factor is present on red blood cells it is Rh + blood group.

  • If the Rh factor is absent on red blood cells it is Rh – blood group.

  • Generally, the main 8 types of blood groups are described by combining the ABO Blood grouping system with the Rh Blood grouping system. They include:

  • A+ Blood group: containing antigen A, antibody B, Antigen D.

  • A- Blood group: containing antigen A, antigen B.

  • B+ Blood group: containing antigen B, antibody A, Antigen D.

  • B- Blood group: containing antigen B, antibody A.

  • AB+ Blood group: containing antigens A&B, No antibody, Antigen D.

  • AB- Blood group: containing antigen A&B, No antibody.

  • O+ Blood group: containing No antigen, antibody A&B, Antigen D.

  • O- Blood group: containing No antigen A, antibody A&B.

  • Bombay blood group: The rare, Bombay blood group was first discovered in Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1952 by Dr Y M Bhende. It is also called as Hh blood group as it lacks the H antigen on the RBC and have A, B, H antibodies in the plasma. As the H antigen is the precursor of the ABO blood group antigens, if it is not produced, the ABO blood group antigens are also not produced.

3. Other Blood Grouping Systems:-

  • There are many other blood grouping systems that are unfamiliar like
  1. MNS
  2. P
  3. Lutheran
  4. Kelly
  5. Lewis
  6. Duffy
  7. Diego
  8. I
  9. Xg
  10. Y1
  11. Kidd groups.
  12. Scianna
  13. Dombrock
  14. Landsteiner-Wiener
  15. Gerbich
  16. Knops
  17. Raph
  18. Cromer
  19. RHGA
  20. Lan
  21. Junior

Blood Group Wise Distribution Of People Worldwide

BLOOD TYPE

PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE WITH IT

A+

35.7%

A-

6.3%

B+

8.5%

B-

1.5%

AB+

3.4%

AB-

0.6%

O+

37.4%

O-

6.6%

  • The population of the A+ Blood group is 35.7%, the population of the A- Blood group is 6.3%, the population of the B+ Blood group is 8.5%, the population of the B- Blood group is 1.5%, The population of the AB+ Blood group is 3.4%, the population of AB- Blood group is 0.6%, The population of O+ Blood group is 37.45%, the population of O- Blood group is 6.6% worldwide.

Most Common Blood Group

  • Out of the main 8 blood groups, O+ is the most common blood group worldwide.

Most Rare Blood Group

  • Out the main 8 blood groups the AB- is the rarest blood group worldwide.

Detection Of Blood Grouping

  • A blood group can be detected easily by using a simple blood grouping test.

1. Requirements:-

  1. glass plate with 3 deep circles
  2. toothpicks
  3. anti-A sera
  4. anti-B sera
  5. anti-D sera
  6. blood sample

2. Procedure:-

Add few drops of blood in each deep circle of the glass plate

        

Add antisera-A in the 1st circle, antisera-B in the 2nd circle and antisera-D in the 3rd circle

Mix the blood sample with the respective antisera properly using 3 tooth pics

Wait for at least 3 mins

By Finding the agglutination reactions formed in the circles we can detect the blood groups.

3. Identification:

Identification- 13angle.com
  • “Agglutination is the clumping of particles that occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin.”
  1. O+ Blood group: If the agglutination reaction occurs in only the 3rd circle i.e., antisera-D and blood it is the O+ Blood group.
  2. O- Blood group: There will be no agglutination reaction in any of the circles.
  3. A+ Blood group: If the agglutination reaction occurs in 1st circle i.e., antisera-A and blood, and 3rd circle i.e., antisera-D and blood it is the A+ Blood group.
  4. A- group: If the agglutination reaction occurs in only in 1st circle i.e., antisera-A and blood it is A- Blood group.
  5. B+ Blood group: If the agglutination reaction occurs in 2ND circle i.e., antisera-B and blood, and 3rd circle i.e., antisera-D and blood it is the B+ Blood group.
  6. B- group: If the agglutination reaction occurs in only in 2nd circle i.e., antisera-B and blood it is B- Blood group.
  7. AB+ Blood group: If the agglutination reaction occurs all 3 circles; in 1st circle i.e., antisera-A and blood, in 2nd circle i.e., antisera-B and blood, and 3rd circle i.e., antisera-D and blood it is AB+ Blood group.
  8. AB- Blood group: If the agglutination reaction occurs in 1st circle i.e., antisera-A and blood, AND in 2nd circle i.e., antisera-B and blood it is AB- Blood group.

Significance Of Blood Grouping

There are mainly three significances. They include:

  1. Blood transfusion
  2. Identification of complications during pregnancy
  3. Identify risk of diseases associated with the blood group

1. Blood Transfusion:-

  • Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood products into a person’s circulation intravenously. It is used to replace blood or blood components that are too low.

  • In case of the emergency situations like blood loss, accidents, severe anaemia, low platelets, surgery, the role of the blood transfusion is vital. So, you need a compatible blood group.

  • The blood needed for the transfusion will be collected from the donors and stored in the blood blank.

  • There are four types of blood transfusions. They include:
  1. Whole blood transfusion; if they have experienced a severe traumatic haemorrhage and require red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  2. Plasma transfusion;if they have experienced severe burns, infections, or liver failure.
  3. Red blood cell transfusion; if they have low red blood cells, anaemia.
  4. Platelets transfusion; if they have low platelet count.
  • To get your blood transferred there should have a donor-lets see about blood donation;

  •  “BLOOD DONOR is a person who gives blood for use in transfusion.”

  • “BLOOD RECEPIENT is a person who receives blood for use in transfusion.”

Criteria to donate blood:-

There are several parameters that determine the eligibility of an individual to donate blood. Guidelines laid down by the