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Indian Politics

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India, which is a parliamentary democratic republic in which the Prime Minister is the head of government, and the President is the head of state. The Constitution establishes the authorities and organizational boundaries of the federal and state governments.

The Supreme Court ruled over an independent judiciary within the provisions of the Constitution. Parties forming through elections are held every five years by parties that obtain a majority of members in their respective lower legislatures (Lok Sabha within the central government and Vidhan Sabha in the states). The Indian National Congress won India’s first general elections in 1951, and this group controlled successive elections till 1977 when it formed the first non-congressive government in independent India.

INDIAN POLITICS- 13angle.com

Politics Of India

Politics of India- 13angle.com
  • The Indian Constitution serves as the basis for the country’s politics. India is a parliamentary democratic republic in which the President of India serves as the head of state, and the Prime Minister serves as the head of government. It is founded on the federal government’s framework, although the term is not used in the Constitution. India features a dual national structure, with a central government and states on the perimeter.

  • The Constitution defines the powers and organizational limits of both the central and state governments; it is well recognized, fluid (the Preamble to the Constitution is rigid and to dictate further amendments to the Constitution), and considered supreme, i.e., the laws of the country must conform to it.

  • The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary presided over by the Supreme Court. The court’s mandate is to protect the Indian Constitution, to resolve disputes between the state governments and central government, to resolve disputes between states, to annul central or state laws that conflict with the Constitution, and to protect the fundamental rights of citizens, issue deeds for their execution in the situation of ruination.

  • According to the multiple-choice voting method, 543 Lok Sabha MPs are elected from 543 distinct electoral districts (first after office). The Rajya Sabha has a total of 245 members. The state legislative assemblies cast single transferable votes to elect 233; the Indian President elects/nominates another 12 members. Governments are formed through elections conducted every five years by parties that obtain a majority of MPs in their respective lower houses (Lok Sabha within the central government and Vidhan Sabha in the states).

  • The Indian National Congress won India’s first general elections in 1951, and this group controlled successive elections till 1977 when it formed the first non-congressive government in independent India. The 1990s marked the end of the one-party rule and, as a result, the rise of coalition administrations. The elections for the 16th Lok Sabha, held between April and May 2014, restored the country’s one-party rule, with the Bharatiya Janata Party having the majority in the Lok Sabha.

  • Indian politics has recently become a government issue. Party stability, a lack of party structures, autonomous civil society organizations, mobilization of party support, and centralized finance for the poll might all be causes for this.

Types Of Political Parties

  • All Indian political parties, whether national or regional / StateState, must have a symbol and be registered with the Election Commission of India. Symbols are used in the Indian political system to partially identify political parties so that illiterate people can vote by recognizing the party symbols.
  • In the current change in the order of symbols, the Commission has proposed the following five principles:
  1. A party, whether national or StateState, must have a legislative presence.
  2. The legislative presence of a national party must be in the Lok Sabha, and the legislative company of a contracting party must be in the State Assembly.
  3. A party can only nominate one candidate from among its members.
  4. A party that loses its recognition does not immediately lose its symbol but is allowed to use it for some time to restore its status. However, providing such relief to the party does not imply the extension of other facilities available to recognized parties, such as free time in Doordarshan or AIR, free delivery of copies of electoral rolls, etc.
  5. A party should only be recognized based on its performance in elections and not because it is a splinter group from another recognized party.
  • A political party can be recognized as a national party if it wins at least six percent (6%) of the valid votes cast in four or more states in general elections to the Lok Sabha or the state legislature. It wins a minimum of 4 seats within the House of the People from any State or State. It beats a minimum of two percent (2%) seats within the House of the People (i.e. 11 seats within the existing House having 543 members). These members are elected from a minimum of three different States. Likewise, an organization shall be entitled to be recognized as a state party if it secures a minimum of six percent (6%) of the valid votes polled within the StateState at an election, either to the Lok Sabha or to the legislature of the StateState concerned. It wins a minimum of two seats within the law-makers of the StateState concerned, or it wins a minimum of three percent (3%) of the total number of seats within the general Assembly of the StateState, or a minimum of three seats within the Assembly, whichever is more.
Types of political parties- 13angle.com

Party Proliferation

  • Despite the passage of a solid anti-defects law in 1984, politicians continue to create their parties rather than joining a broad-based party like the Congress or the BJP. The number of parties that took part in the elections grew from 33 to 113. This separation persisted over the next few decades. Despite the passage of an anti-defects solid law in 1984, politicians continued to create their parties rather than join a broad-based party that grew from 33 to 113. Alliances remained fragmented in the decades that followed.

  • India has a long history of party alliances and breakups. Nationally, though, three-party coalitions routinely line up for government seats. Even if the parties depart the ship, the member parties work together to serve the national interest.

Party proliferation- 13angle.com

Corruption

  • India has the worst level of political corruption. The primary source of worry is that sin weakens the political body and undermines the supremacy of the law that governs society. Politics is now just for criminals, and criminals are destined to be in politics.

  • For decades, India has been plagued by political corruption. The federal government quickly turned over democratic institutions, the opposition was suppressed, and most citizens suffered the price. Political corruption in India is undermining democracy and eroding public trust in the political system. Large quantities of money are required in elections, which is the basis of the political-capitalist connection.

Candidate Selection

  • Pre-election coalitions are likely in India, with parties choosing to split seats. This is frequently observed on a state-by-state basis rather than on a national scale. After alliance colleagues have agreed on seat-sharing, candidate selection begins.

  • Internal party democracy in Indian political parties is minimal. As a result, in Indian elections, whether at the state or national level, party candidates are generally chosen by the party elites, also known as the supreme party headquarters. The party elites prefer candidates based on several factors.

  • These include the candidates’ ability to fund their election, educational attainment, and the level of organization in their particular districts. The last criteria are frequently connected to applicant crime.

Local Governance

Local Governance- 13angle.com
  • Panchayati Raj Institutions, also known as local self-governing groups, play an essential role in Indian politics, focusing on fundamental administration.

  • The Constitution Act (73rd Amendment) of 1992 went into effect on April 24, 1993, granting constitutional standing to Panchayati Raj institutions. Since December 24, 1996, this Act has been extended to Panchayats in tribal regions of eight states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Rajasthan.

  • This Act aims to provide 3- directions of the Panchayati Raj level system for all states with a population of over 2 million, hold regular Panchayat elections every five years, arrange seat reservations for the castes, tribes, and women considered, appoint the State Finance Commission to make recommendations on the financial strength of the Panchayats and establish a Committee District Planning to prepare draft district development plans.

Role Of Political Parties

Role of Political Parties- 13angle.com
  • As in other democracies, political parties in India represent various segments of Indian society and regions, and their core principles are essential to Indian politics. The Indian government’s executive and legislative branches are led by political parties chosen in general elections. The people of India elect which political party and representatives will guide the government through an election process. Any party can win a simple majority in the lower house through elections, and political parties form coalitions if neither party wins a simple majority in the lower house.

  • A party or coalition cannot establish a government unless it obtains a majority in the lower chamber.

  • India has a multi-party system with several national and regional parties. A regional party can win a majority and govern a particular state. A party will be labeled as a national party if it is represented in more than four states. The Indian National Congress (INC) has controlled India for 53 years, beginning in January 2020, out of the 72 years since its independence.

  • Except for two brief spells in the 1970s and late 1980s, the party held a legislative majority. This norm was broken from 1977 to 1980 when the Janata Party alliance won the election due to widespread outrage over Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s controversial state of emergency declaration. The Janata Dal won elections in 1989, but his government barely lasted two years.

  • Except for two brief spells in the 1970s and late 1980s, the party held a legislative majority. This norm was broken from 1977 to 1980 when the Janata Party alliance won the election due to widespread outrage over Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s controversial state of emergency declaration. The Janata Dal won elections in 1989, but his government barely lasted two years.

  • Between 1996 to 1998, there was a period of political upheaval, with the Bharatiya Janata Nationalist Party (BJP) becoming the first administration, followed by the United Front, a leftist alliance. The BJP established the National Democratic Alliance with minor regional parties in 1998, becoming the first non-INC administration and team to serve a full five-year term. The INC won the most seats in the 2004 Indian elections, forming a government under the helm of the United Progressive Alliance, which left-wing and anti-BJP parties backed.

  • Following the victory of the INC and the left front in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections, Manmohan Singh was chosen Prime Minister of India on May 22, 2004. Without the backing of the left front, the UPA governed India. Previously, Atal Bihari Vajpayee was elected in October 1999 following a general election in which a 13-party BJP alliance known as the National Democratic Alliance won a majority. Narendra Modi of the BJP was elected Prime Minister of India in May 2014.

  • The formation of a coalition government reflects the transition in Indian politics from a national party to a minor regional party with a narrower base. Some regional parties, especially in South India, align with regional ideologies, unlike national parties. Therefore, the relationship between the central and state governments in different states is not always without grudges. The gap between the doctrines of the political parties that govern the center and the form leads to a highly distorted allocation of resources between countries.

There Are Several Political Issues:

Social Issues

  • Due to the lack of homogeneity in the Indian population, distinct demographic groups are divided based on religion, geography, language, caste, and ethnicity. As a result, political parties with agendas aligned with one or more of these groupings have emerged. Parties in India also target those who do not support other parties and exploit them.

  • Some parties explicitly admit to focusing on a specific group. Still, other parties’ limited emphasis and voting strategies complement national problems like economic well-being and national security, even in the central government and state legislatures. Internal safety is also jeopardised since political parties frequently encourage and perpetrate violence between opposing groups of people.

Economic Problems

  • The significant issues that impact politics are economic issues such as poverty, unemployment, and development. Garibi Hatao has long been the National Congress of India’s slogan, and the Bharatiya Janata Party advocates a free-market economy. Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas is the most popular phrase in this area. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) strongly supports left-wing policies such as Landforall and the right to work while strongly opposing neoliberal policies such as globalization, capitalism, and privatisation.

Law And Order

  • Terrorism, Naxalism, religious violence, and caste-based violence are significant concerns influencing the Indian nation’s political climate. Strict anti-terrorism legislation such as TADA, POTA, and MCOCA have gotten a lot of political attention, both for and against them. Some of these laws have been overturned due to human rights breaches. Terrorism has affected Indian politics, whether it be terrorism supported by Pakistan or local guerrilla organizations such as the Naxalites. Former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was killed during an election campaign in 1991, with the suicide bomber eventually being linked to the Sri Lankan terrorist organization Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. The assassination was later justified as an act of retaliation against Rajiv Gandhi, who had ordered soldiers to Sri Lanka in 1987.

  • Legal and regulatory problems, such as anti-organized crime legislation, have no bearing on the outcome of the elections. On the other side, there is a political-criminal connection, with several elected politicians facing criminal charges. According to the Washington Post, over a quarter of India’s 540 MPs have been prosecuted for crimes such as “people trafficking, child prostitution, immigration extortion, embezzlement, rape, and even murder.”

Local Governance- 13angle.com
Law and order- 13angle.com

Election Commissioner

  • The Electoral Commission of India is a self-governing constitutional body overseeing India’s Union and state electoral procedures. The agency organizes elections in India for the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures, and the offices of the president and vice president.

  • As a result, the Election Commission of India is a permanent and independent organization created directly by the Indian Constitution to ensure free and fair elections. The Election Commission has the authority to supervise, direct, and elections for the parliament, state legislatures, the office of the President of India, and the office of the Vice President of India, according to Article 324 of the Constitution. As a result, the Election Commission is an agency in India in the broad sense of the national and state governments.

  • The agency conducts elections for the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures, state legislative councils, and the country’s president and vice president positions.

  • The Constitution empowers the General Election Commission under Article 324 to issue the Law on People’s Representation. The Commission has the authority granted by the Constitution to act appropriately when adopted laws give insufficient measures to cope with specific election scenarios.

Election Commissioner- 13angle.com

General Election

  • A general election is a political election by a voting system in which all or the majority of a particular political body are elected. These are different from by-elections in that they are generally held for a country’s, state’s, or territory’s principal legislative body.

  • A general election is a regularly scheduled election in which both the head of government, such as the president or prime minister, and either a class or all members of a legislature are chosen simultaneously in most systems. Dates for general elections may occasionally coincide with dates for elections in various administrative units, such as a municipal election.

State Election

  • The State Election Commission is a Constitutional Authority established On May 26, 1993, Following The Promulgation Of The 73rd And 74th Amendments To The Indian Constitution To Conduct Elections To Rural And Urban Local Bodies In The States.

  • The superintendence, supervision, and control of the production of electoral rolls for, and conduct of, all Panchayat elections must be vested in a State Election Commission composed of a State Election Commissioner nominated by the Governor.

Panchayat Election

  • Every five years, elections for Panchayat members at all levels are held. Gram Panchayat (village level), Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti (block level), and Zila Parishad are the three tiers of the system (district level). The ward representatives are elected directly by the Gram Sabha members. According to the State Act, the Sarpanch or president of the Gram Panchayat is elected by the ward members. The Sarpanch and Panch are chosen for a five-year term. The elected body and administration govern the Gram Panchayat.

  • Every five years, elections for Panchayat members at all levels are held. Gram Panchayat (village level), Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti (block level), and Zila Parishad are the three tiers of the system (district level). The ward representatives are elected directly by the Gram Sabha members. According to the State Act, the Sarpanch or president of the Gram Panchayat is elected by the ward members. The Sarpanch and Panch are chosen for a five-year term. The elected body and administration govern the Gram Panchayat.

  • Balwant Rai Mehta was a lawmaker at the time the committee was formed. He is recognised as the Father of Panchayati Raj in India and is credited with pioneering the concept of Panchayati Raj in India.

High Political Offices In India

President Of India

  • The constitution of India states that the head of state and the union executive are the Indian presidents. They are elected for a term of five years by an electoral college made up of members of the two houses of Parliament and members of the legislative assemblies of the states. The President can be re-elected; However, in the independent history of India, only one President, Rajendra Prasad, has been re-elected.

  • Similarly, The President appoints the Prime Minister of India from any party or coalition with the highest support of the Lok Sabha, on whose recommendation he appoints the other members of the Union Council of Ministers. Moreover, President also appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and the Superior Courts. The Houses of Parliament meet on the recommendation of the President, and only the President has the authority to dissolve the Lok Sabha. Furthermore, no bill passed by Parliament can enter into force without the approval of the President.

  • Although, the role of the President of India is mainly ceremonial. All previous powers of the President are exercised on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers of the Union, and the President does not have much discretion in any of these matters. The President also has no choice in exercising his executive powers since the real executive power rests with the cabinet. The current President is Ram Nath Kovind.

Vice President Of India

  • The office of the vice president of India is constitutionally the second-highest office in the country after the president. The vice president is also elected by an electoral college made up of members of both houses of parliament.

  • Like the president, the vice president has a ceremonial role without any royal authority. The vice president carries a position in the president’s office (until a new president is elected). His only regular function is that of ex officio president of the Rajya Sabha. No more tasks/powers are assigned to the office. The current vice president is Venkaiah Naidu. The Prime Minister and the Union Council of Ministers.

Vice President of India- 13angle.com
Vice President of India- 13angle.com

Prime Minister Of India

The Prime Minister of India is the prominent leader of the Indian Government of India’s executive branch. His role differs from India’s President, who serves as the country’s head of state. Because India has a parliamentary style of government modeled after the Westminster system, the Prime Minister has the majority of executive authorities. He serves as the President’s advisor and the Council of Ministers’ head. The President of India picks the Prime Minister and, on his recommendation, the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister may serve in either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha.              

Union Government Ministries Of India

  • The executive authority of the Government of India is exercised through several government ministries or departments of the state. A ministry comprises employed officials known as civil servants and is held accountable politically through a minister. Most main ministries are chaired by a Cabinet Minister, a member of the Union Council of Ministers. They are usually backed by a team of subordinate ministers known as Ministers of State.

  • Departments are sub-divisions of some ministries.

  • The Ministry of Communications, for example, has two departments: the Department of Telecommunications and the Department of Posts.

Categories Of Ministers

  • The COM comprises three types of ministers: cabinet ministers, ministers of state, and deputy ministers. The Prime Minister is at the apex of all of these ministries.

Cabinet Ministers

  • The Prime Minister of India chairs the council. In India, the highest decision-making body is a more petite executive body known as the Union Cabinet. According to Article 75, only the prime minister and cabinet ministers are members of the Union Cabinet.

  • The word “cabinet” is derived from the Italian word “Cabinetto,” which means “a tiny, private place”. An excellent spot to talk about serious matters without being disturbed. The phrase was coined by James Madison, who referred to the sessions as “the president’s cabinet“.

Minister Of State

  • Minister of State is a title held by politicians or bureaucrats in nations that use a parliamentary government. A ‘Minister of State’ is a junior minister in various nations appointed to assist a specific cabinet minister. In some nations, a ‘Minister of State’ is a higher-ranking official, such as a cabinet minister or even the head of government.

  • The term “Minister of State” is reserved in various national traditions for government officials of cabinet status, frequently a formal distinction within it, or even its leader.

Deputy Minister

Deputy Minister- 13angle.com
  • The Deputy minister is a title held by politicians or bureaucrats in nations that use a parliamentary government. A “Deputy minister” is a subordinate minister in various nations appointed to help a specific cabinet minister, and they receive political guidance from a Crown-appointed minister.

  • The current administration lacks a deputy prime minister, and the position has been empty since May 23, 2004.

Political Body Of India

  • A bicameral legislature is provided for an upper chamber, the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), representing the Indian federation’s states. A lower body, the Lok Sabha (House of the People), represents the people of India as a whole.

Three Bodies Of Indian Politics

  • The Union of India is sometimes known as the Government of India (GOI). According to Article 300 of the Indian Constitution, the Westminster system is used to administer the state.

  • It is headquartered in New Delhi, India’s capital. The government is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.

  • The executive branch is led by the President, the Head of State, and wields authority either personally or through subordinate offices.

Legislative Body

  • The legislative branch comprises the House and Senate, which are referred to together as the Congress. The legislative branch, among other things, creates all laws, declares war, regulates interstate and foreign trade, and sets taxation and spending policies.

  • The Parliament of India is the Republic of India’s ultimate legislative body. It is a bicameral legislature made up of the President of India and two chambers, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

Executive Body

  • The executive is the branch of government in charge of law enforcement and state governance.

  • In political systems founded on the idea of separation of powers, authority is dispersed among multiple branches to prevent violence from becoming concentrated in the hands of a single group of individuals. The executive does not make or interpret laws in such a system. Instead, the executive implements the law as enacted by the legislative and interpreted by the courts. Specific forms of law, such as a decree or executive order, can be issued by the executive. Regulations are frequently derived from administrative bureaucracy.

Judiciary

  • The judiciary is the judicial system that interprets, defends, and applies the law on behalf of the state. The judiciary can also be viewed as a tool for resolving conflicts. According to the idea of the separation of powers, the judiciary does not usually establish statutory law or enforce legislation but instead interprets, defends, and applies the law to the circumstances of each case. In certain nations, however, the judiciary creates common law.

  • The judicial branch has the authority to modify legislation in many jurisdictions through the process of judicial review. Courts having judicial review authority may overturn state laws and norms if they are incompatible with a higher standard, such as primary legislation, constitution provisions, treaties, or international law. Judges are a crucial factor in interpreting and executing a constitution, producing the body of constitutional law in common law nations.

Role Of Cabinet Secretary

  • The Cabinet Secretariat administers the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961, and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961, which facilitate the smooth transaction of business in Government Ministries/Departments. This Secretariat provides Secretarial assistance to the Cabinet and its Committees and assists in government decision-making by ensuring inter-ministerial coordination, resolving differences among Ministries/Departments, and evolving consensus through the use of standing/Adhoc Committees of Secretaries. New policy proposals are also pushed using this approach.

  • The Cabinet Secretariat ensures that the President, Vice President, and Ministers are kept up to date on all Ministries/Departments’ critical operations through a monthly overview of their activities. One of the Cabinet Secretariat’s tasks is to manage severe crises in the country and coordinate several Ministries’ operations in such a circumstance.

National Security Advisor

  • The National Security Advisor is the senior person on India’s National Security Council and the Prime Minister’s principal adviser on national security policy and foreign affairs. The current NSA is Ajit Doval, who holds the same position as a Union Cabinet Minister.

  • Because of the post’s entrenched powers, the NSA is an evident and powerful office in the Government of India. Since the post’s establishment in 1998, all NSAs have been appointed to either the Indian Foreign Service or the Indian Police Service and have served at the discretion of the Prime Minister of India.

Parliament Of India

Parliament of India- 13angle.com
  • The Parliament of India is the Republic of India’s ultimate legislative body. It is a bicameral legislature that consists of the President of India and two houses: the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. In his capacity as head of the legislative, the President has complete authority to call and prorogue either chamber of Parliament and dissolve Lok Sabha. Only on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers may the President utilize these powers.

Rajya Sabha

  • The ‘Council of States,’ also known as Rajya Sabha, a nomenclature declared by the chair in the House on August 23, 1954, has its distinguishing traits. The second Chamber may be traced back to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918. The Government of India Act of 1919 called for the establishment of a ‘Council of State’ as a second chamber of the erstwhile legislature with a limited franchise, established in 1921. The Governor-General served as the ex-officio President of the Council of State at the time. The composition of the Government of India Act, 1935, scarcely changed.

Lok Sabha

  • The Lok Sabha is made up of people’s representatives who are elected directly via adult suffrage. The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is 552, which is made up by the election of up to 530 members to represent the States, up to 20 members to represent the Union Territories, and up to two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the Hon’ble President if that community is not adequately represented in the House in their opinion. The total elected membership is allocated among the states so that, to the greatest extent possible, the ratio between the number of seats given to each state and the population of the state is equal,  the same for all States.

Vidhan Sabha

Vidhan Sabha- 13angle.com

The Vidhan Sabha, also known as the Legislative Assembly, is the lower house (in bicameral states) or the state legislature’s only body (in unicameral states). In the seven states having bicameral legislatures, the upper chamber is the Legislative Council or Vidhan Parishad.

Top 13 Interesting Facts About Indian Politics

  1. Manmohan Singh was both India’s and the world’s most qualified Prime

  2. Manik Sarkar is Tripura’s first Chief Minister who does not own a home, a car, or a healthy financial balance.

  3. You might also walk from Kolkata in West Bengal to Chennai in Tamil Nadu without passing through any BJP-held constituency. West Bengal, Orissa, Telangana, and Tamil Nadu have predominantly supported political parties representing regional interests. 

  4. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the only Indian Parliamentarian elected from all four states: Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi.

  5. This year sees the introduction of a new Social Media Model Code of Conduct. The Election Commission will require all political parties to publish their social media outlets or usernames. The use of harsh language and misleading news on social media is likewise prohibited by law.

  6. Approximately 34% of India’s 16th Lok Sabha (lower chamber of the Indian Union parliament) have disclosed criminal charges.

  7. Among major parties, the Trinamool Congress of West Bengal has the highest proportion of female candidates — more than 30 percent – among seats won.

  8. For the first time, the Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) and postal ballot sheets would include an image of each candidate to assist voters in identifying the party leaders in the race.

  9. Since the 2014 elections, the overall number of voters for the 2019 Lok Sabha elections has increased by 84.3 million.

  10. The BJP has benefited from a large portion of their vote being concentrated in the Indian Union’s Hindi belt.

  11. When general elections are held concurrently with Assembly elections, the expense is split 50:50 between the Centre and the individual state governments.

  12. Candidates with a criminal record will be required to reveal details about their criminal history in newspapers and on television three times throughout the campaign.

  13. The None of the Above (NOTA) option was first used in the Lok Sabha elections in 2014.

Debangshu goswami- 13angle Intern

Debangshu Goswami

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13angle

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