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Dengue And It's Top 13 Interesting Facts- 13angle.com

Dengue

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dengue- 13angle.com

What Is Dengue?

  • Dengue is a viral infection transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The primary vectors that transmit the disease are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and, to a lesser extent, Ae. Albopictus. The virus responsible for causing dengue is called the dengue virus (DENV).

  • Severe dengue is defined by dengue with symptoms: severe plasma leakage leading to shock or fluid accumulation with respiratory distress; severe bleeding; or severe organ impairment such as elevated transaminases ≥1,000 IU/L, impaired consciousness, or heart impairment.

What Is The Distribution And Breakdown Of Dengue?

  • The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. A vast majority of cases are asymptomatic or mild and self-managed, and hence the actual numbers of dengue cases are under-reported. Before 1970, only 9 countries had experienced severe dengue epidemics. The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries in the WHO regions of Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. The Americas, South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions are the most seriously affected, with Asia representing ~70% of the global burden of disease.
dengue cases in India- 13angle.com
death cases in India- 13angle.com
  • Dengue fever is considered a year-round and nationwide risk in India. India reported over 1.93 lakh cases of dengue in 2021 highest in six years since 2015. Similarly, 346 deaths were caused by dengue across India in 2021 and highest since 2015.

Which Disease Do Mosquitoes Spread?

  • Humans suffer from mosquitoes more than any other organism in the world. Mosquito-borne diseases are those spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Diseases that are spread to people by mosquitoes include:

 SL.NO     DISEASE     MOSQUITO     ORGANISM  
1 Malaria Female Anopheles mosquito parasite plasmodium
2 Dengue fever Female Aedes aegypti mosquito dengue virus
3 Chikungunya virus Aedes Albopictus mosquito Chikungunya virus
4 Japanese Encephalitis Culex species mosquitoes JE virus
5 Zika fever Female Aedes mosquito zika virus  
6 Yellow fever Aedes or Haemagogus species mosquitoes yellow fever virus
7 Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis) Culex, Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes parasitic worm Wuchereria Bancrofti
8 Ross River Fever Culex annulirostris, Aedes vigilax (salt marsh mosquito) and Aedes notoscriptus ross river virus
9 Eastern Equine Encephalitis Culiseta melanura Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus
10 West Nile virus Culex mosquitoes West Nile virus
11 St. Louis Encephalitis Culex mosquitoes St. Louis Encephalitis virus

What Are The Symptoms Of Dengue Fever?

Mild Dengue Symptoms

Severe Dengue Symptoms

Mild Dengue

High fever (40 degree C/ 104 degree F)

With the following symptoms lasting 2-7 days:

  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Nausea, Vomiting
  • Swollen glands
  • Muscle & joint pains
  • Rash

Severe Dengue

3-7 days after first symptoms of mild dengue

Decrease in temperature (below 38 degree C/ 100 degree F), with:

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Rapid breathing
  • Bleeding gums
  • Blood in vomit
  • Fatigue, restlessness

 

How Is Dengue Transmitted?

How is dengue transmitted- 13angle.com

How Can We Diagnose Dengue?

  • The diagnostic tests for dengue include:

1. Detection of virus:

  1. It should be done 4-5 after the onset of the illness.
  2. The virus is detected in serum, plasma, circulating blood cells and tissues.
  3. RT-PCR test is done.

2. Detection of viral nucleic acid:

  1. It should be done 4-5 after onset of illness.
  2. NASBA (Nucleic acid sequence-based application assay)

3. Antigen detection:

  1. It should be done 4-5 after onset of illness.
  2. NS1 antigen is generally produced by all flavivirus.
  3.  It is done by Rapid card test kits give rapid results.
  4. It is also done by NS1 antigen ELISA test.

4. Antibodies detection:

  1. IgM antibody test- should be done around day3 to 2months.
  2. IgG antibody test- should be done After 3weeks.

5. Haematological tests: should be done between day 3 to day 8.

  • They include:
  1. Platelet count
  2. Haematocrit value
  3. Haematocrit concentration

How Can We Treat Dengue?

  • There are no specific treatment options for dengue. No specific antiviral agents exist for dengue. Doctors only advice the symptomatic treatment.
  1. Acetaminophen can be used for fever and joint pains

  2. Drink plenty of fluids (water, isotonic drinks, fruit juices and soup) to maintain hydration. Avoid tea, coffee, alcohol and soft drinks with high sugar content which may cause dehydration. If you are unable to drink due to nausea or vomiting, fluids may be given intravenously by drip.

  3. New drug: Caripill tablet is used to increase the low blood platelet count that is associated with dengue fever. It contains extracts of leaves of Carica papaya commonly known as papaya. Carica papaya leaf extract act works by increasing the activity of two genes involved in the formation of platelets, thus increasing platelet production in conditions like dengue. Papaya leaf extracts could be taken as syrup; 30ml three times a day before meals for an adult and 5-10ml three times a day for a child until you have fully recovered from the illness.

  4. Transfusion to replace blood loss.

  5. Nutritional supplements.

Is There Any Vaccine For Dengue Fever?

  • Dengvaxia (dengue vaccine) protects children from dengue illness, hospitalizations, and severe dengue 8 out of 10 times (80%) in children who had dengue before vaccination in the United States.

  • There is no vaccine for dengue yet (in India).

How Can We Prevent Dengue?

How can we prevent dengue- 13angle.com
  • There are certain ways through which we can prevent dengue: –
  1. Cover containers
  2. Throw away the water container
  3. Setup mosquito trap
  4. Use netting for baby cot
  5. Close windows
  6. Apply mosquito repellents
  7. Wear long bright clothing
  8. Breed small fishes
  9. Use insecticides

Foods To Be Taken During Dengue?

Foods to be taken during dengue- 13angle.com
  • Platelet-boosting foods like Papaya, wheat grass, raisins, kiwi, citrus fruits, and Pomegranates.

  • Immunity-boosting food: Citrus fruits, Tulsi, Ashwagandha, Green tea, Black tea, turmeric.

  • Hydration: Coconut water, water, lemon water, and fruit juices.

  • Soft diet foods: Rice, idly, plain Dal, boiled vegetables, fruits.

  • Protein-rich diet: Milk and its products, egg, lean meat.

Foods To Be Avoided During Dengue?

  • Oily and deep fried fo0d

  • Spicy foods

  • Caffeinated beverages

  • Alcohol

  • Foods containing salicylate: pepper, garlic, onion, ginger,  potato,  cucumber, tomato, almond, walnuts, strawberry, gooseberry, grape ,cherry.

Do’s And Don’ts Of Dengue?

Do’s

Dont’s

  • water storage vessels like bottles, cops, drums, pots, buckets, etc. Should be cleaned every day and then filled. Also, they should be covered.
  • Keep the areas around your house and the drains clean.
  • Use mosquito repellents and nets while sleeping.
  • Wear full-sleeve clothes to avoid mosquito bites.
  • Don’t let water accumulate anywhere in your house or the surrounding areas.
  • Don’t leave water tanks open kept on terraces and nearby places.
  • Avoid consuming paracetamol and aspirin-based medicines without medical supervision.
  • Do not panic. Most dengue patients can be cured with timely medical treatment.

Top 13 Interesting Facts About Dengue Fever

  1. Dengue fever is also known as Break bone fever.

  2. There are over 3,000 different species of mosquitoes throughout the world.

  3. Only female mosquitoes bite people and animals to get a blood meal to develop their eggs while Male mosquitoes feed only on plant juices such as nectar, to get the sugar they need for energy and survival. 

  4. Each year, up to 400 million people get infected with dengue. Approximately 100 million people get sick from infection, and 40,000 die from severe dengue.

  5. We need to bust the Dengue myth that every mosquito bite will cause dengue. Only female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can spread the dengue virus when it is infected.

  6. March to June months is called Dengue season.

  7. The first case of Dengue worldwide was noticed in the city of Recife, Brazil, in 1685. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proven epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964.

  8. After mating, a male mosquito usually lives only for three to five days and a female mosquito can live if a month or two under ideal conditions.

  9. Dengue mosquito bite is much redder and itchy compared to a normal mosquito bite.

  10. Aedes aegypti bites primarily during the day. This species is most active for approximately two hours after sunrise and several hours before sunset, but it can bite at night in well-lit areas.

  11. If you have Type O blood, hotter body temperatures, and more secretions of sweat mosquitoes will be more interested in you.

  12. A full moon can increase mosquito activity by 500 percent.

  13. May 16 is marked as National Dengue Day every year in India.

FAQs

Symptoms in mild dengue: high fever(40ºC/104ºF) with severe headache, pain behind the eyes, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands, muscle and joint pains, rash lasting 2-7 days.

Symptoms in mild dengue: after first symptoms of mild dengue, decrease in temperature below 38ºC/100ºF with Severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, rapid breathing, bleeding gums, blood in vomit, fatigue, restlessness.

There are no specific treatment options for dengue. Acetaminophen can be used for fever and joint pains, Drink plenty of fluids to maintain hydration, New drug: Caripill tablet is used to increase the low blood platelet count, Transfusion to replace blood loss,Nutritional supplements.

There are certain ways through which we can prevent dengue: –

Cover containers, throw away the water container, Setup mosquito trap, use netting for baby cot, Close windows, Apply mosquito repellents, Wear long bright clothing, Breed small fishes, Use insecticides.

Yes, once a person has been infected with one strain, their body will build up an immunity to only that strain of the virus. This means that a person can become infected with dengue fever another 3 times in their life. Moreover, each dengue fever reinfection is much more dangerous than the previous infection.

Dengvaxia (dengue vaccine) protects children from dengue illness, hospitalizations, and severe dengue 8 out of 10 times (80%) in children who had dengue before vaccination in the United States. There is no vaccine for dengue yet (in India).

Yes; few studies have proven that coconut water increases the platelet count.

Fruits like Papaya, Pomegranate, Citrus fruits like orange, sweet oranges, lemon can increase the platelets.

Pillarisetty Mohana Lakshmi Sowmya- 13angle writer

Pillarisetty Mohana Lakshmi Sowmya

Writer

13angle

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