Chandrayaan-3 mission- 13angle

India’s Bold Leap To The Moon’s South Pole: Chandrayaan-3’s Quest For Discovery

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Chandrayaan-3's Quest for Discovery- 13angle.com


Imagine the vast sky, where stars twinkled like friendly winks, and the Moon watched quietly – there unfolded a story of courage, wonder, and triumph: the story of Chandrayaan-3. It was more than just a space journey; it was a tale of dreams coming true, of hard work and bravery that knew no limits.

Chandrayaan-3 wasn’t just a spacecraft; it was like a superhero in space, carrying the dreams of India high. Think of artists making their masterpieces – that’s what the clever minds behind this mission did. They carefully put together a Lander and Rover, like pieces of a puzzle, showing how hard work and innovative thinking could achieve incredible things.

Picture this a giant rocket- 13angle

Picture this: a giant rocket, the LVM3, ready to shoot up from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. Inside it, there’s a piece of India’s heart, filled with big hopes. The rocket is like a team captain, leading the way. And then there’s the propulsion module, a clever gadget that helps carry the Lander and Rover to the Moon’s orbit, about 100 kilometers away.

LVM3- 13angle.com

But it wasn’t just about machines; it was about dreams too. The propulsion module brought something special called SHAPE. It was like a magical camera that looked at our home, Earth, from the Moon’s spot. We imagined seeing Earth from so far away, trying to understand its colors and secrets.

Chandrayaan-3 was heading to the Moon’s south pole, where scientists believed there might be ice. This ice could be like a treasure chest, holding things we needed for future space journeys. It was like finding a hidden well in a desert.

But even dreams faced challenges. Chandrayaan-3 needed a gentle landing on the Moon, like a superhero landing softly. If everything went well, it would stay on the Moon for about two weeks, doing cool science stuff. We imagined a super detective looking at the Moon’s rocks through a special lens, trying to figure out what they were made of.

Behind all of this was the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), a team of intelligent people who made dreams come true. On 23 August 2023, Chandrayaan-3 showed the world that India could do big things. It was like a superhero’s debut – everyone was excited to see what it could do!

Oh, and there was a special touch: on 26 August 2023, Prime Minister Narendra Modi gave Chandrayaan-3’s landing spot on the Moon a special name, ‘Shiv Shakti’. It was like adding a pinch of tradition to a high-tech adventure.

So, we gathered around, like friends by a campfire, and watched Chandrayaan-3’s adventure. It reminded us that brave hearts could achieve anything. As the story of Chandrayaan-3 unfolded on the Moon’s surface, we remembered that dreams, hard work, and the spirit of India were all up there too.


Background of Chandrayan-3- 13angle

In the vast canvas of the cosmos, where stars twinkle like guiding beacons, a story unfolds – a story of Chandrayaan-3, a journey etched with determination, courage, and dreams that touch the skies. This tale is rooted in the heart of ISRO, India’s space pioneers, and it resonates with the spirit of overcoming challenges and reaching for the stars.

Think back to that special day on July 22, 2019, when Chandrayaan-2 embarked on its adventure. Carried by the sturdy wings of the Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3), it carried within it the aspirations of a nation that dreams big. The mission was more than a spacecraft; it was a trio of marvels – an orbiter, a lander, and a rover – a testament to ISRO’s journey into the cosmos.

As the lander aimed to touch down on the Moon’s surface on September 6, 2019, a twist in the tale emerged. Communication was lost, plans were diverted, and yet, amidst it all, resilience shone through. This moment was a lesson – a reminder that pursuing dreams isn’t just about sunny paths; it’s about the courage to face challenges head-on.

The heart of Chandrayaan-2’s adventure lay at the lunar South Pole, a region wrapped in mysteries waiting to be unravelled. Imagine a treasure trove of icy secrets that hold the keys to our cosmic history. The Moon’s rugged terrain and ever-shifting light have guarded these treasures, a canvas of discovery waiting to be explored.

Now, as the echoes of Chandrayaan-2 linger, Chandrayaan-3 steps into the spotlight. Set to launch on August 23, 2023, this mission isn’t just about reaching the Moon; it’s about pushing boundaries and embracing triumphs. The trio of orbiter, lander, and rover stands as a testament to human curiosity and India’s scientific prowess.

A touch of tradition meets technology as Prime Minister Narendra Modi named Chandrayaan-3’s landing site ‘Shiv Shakti’. It’s like a blend of old and new, a nod to India’s heritage and its strides into the future. This fusion embodies Chandrayaan-3’s essence – a journey that bridges generations and embraces the cosmos.

During all this, Chandrayaan-3 isn’t just a spacecraft; it’s a beacon of hope. It urges us to rise above obstacles, dream without limits, and chase stars with unwavering spirit. Just like Chandrayaan-2’s story, Chandrayaan-3 is set to be a chapter of dreams, courage, and the enduring spirit of India’s cosmic voyage.

Architects Behind This Successful Mission

Architects behind this successful mission- 13angle.com

Behind the celestial triumph of Chandrayaan 3, a team of dedicated minds orchestrated a symphony of innovation, precision, and commitment. Each name etched within the ISRO team encapsulates expertise, resolve, and the unyielding pursuit of knowledge.

1. ISRO Chairperson: S. Somanath

Guiding the journey with visionary acumen, S. Somanath, the ISRO Chairperson, stood at the helm of Chandrayaan 3’s aspirations. His leadership exemplified the nation’s cosmic ambitions, steering the mission with strategic vision and unwavering dedication.

2. Mission Director: S. Mohanakumar

In the realm of mission orchestration, S. Mohanakumar’s name resonated with diligence and direction. As the Mission Director, his meticulous approach ensured that every detail aligned with ISRO’s cosmic blueprint.

3. Associate Mission Director: G. Narayanan

Narayanan, the Associate Mission Director, lent his expertise to the cosmic canvas. With an eye for precision and a dedication to the mission’s success, he became an integral part of Chandrayaan 3’s journey.

4. Project Director: P. Veeramuthuvel

Veeramuthuvel, the Project Director, encapsulated the mission’s essence with his strategic acumen. His leadership was a beacon, guiding the project’s intricacies and milestones with resolute determination.

5. Deputy Project Director: Kalpana Kalahasti

At the forefront of execution stood Kalpana Kalahasti, the Deputy Project Director. Her role mirrored the mission’s heartbeat, ensuring that every facet of Chandrayaan 3’s execution aligned seamlessly.

6. Vehicle Director: Biju C. Thomas

The cosmic vehicle’s guidance fell under the expertise of Biju C. Thomas, the Vehicle Director. His role encompassed precision engineering, steering the mission’s propulsion with expertise and meticulous planning.

Within these names, the ISRO team sculpted Chandrayaan 3’s journey, from vision to realization. Their collective efforts painted a tapestry of exploration, precision, and cosmic pride. Each title isn’t just a designation; it’s a testament to human aspiration and the unwavering dedication that propels India’s cosmic narrative forward.

Funding the Vision

In the month of December 2019, ISRO embarked on the path of realizing Chandrayaan 3’s dreams by seeking an initial fund allocation. The sought amount was a total of ₹75 crore (equivalent to approximately US$9.4 million), meticulously divided to cater to the mission’s diverse needs.

Out of this financial tapestry, ₹60 crores (around US$7.5 million) was destined to breathe life into machinery, equipment, and various capital expenditures. This allocation not only underscored ISRO’s focus on precision but also highlighted the strategic nature of its budgetary considerations. By harnessing local sourcing of equipment and design elements, ISRO was able to wield fiscal prudence, significantly reducing the mission’s financial demands.

Meanwhile, the remaining ₹15 crore (roughly US$1.9 million) was earmarked for operating expenses. This slice of the budget pie was crucial in ensuring the seamless orchestration of the mission’s intricate components. Through meticulous financial planning and allocation, ISRO reaffirmed its commitment to responsible fiscal stewardship.

Former ISRO Chairman K. Sivan, in confirming the existence of Chandrayaan 3, shed light on the financial horizon. He unveiled the estimated cost to be around ₹615 crore, a sum that resonated with ISRO’s meticulous approach. This investment of resources was not merely financial; it was an investment in humanity’s exploration aspirations, a testament to ISRO’s relentless pursuit of knowledge and cosmic understanding.

Mission Profile

Mission Profile- 13angle

Imagine that special day – July 14, 2023, at 9:05:17 UT (2:35 p.m. in India). It’s a moment when Chandrayaan 3 lifts off, leaving the ground behind and embracing the boundless skies. How incredible it is to think that it was the GSLV Mark 3 (LVM 3) heavy-lift launch vehicle that carried this dream into the unknown, from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India. And there it was, gently cradled in an elliptic Earth parking orbit of about 170 x 36,500 km.

But the real magic began in the days that followed. It’s like a dance between Earth and Moon, where Chandrayaan 3 gradually made its way to its lunar destination. And then came that moment, on August 5, when the spacecraft found its place in a lunar orbit, around 164 x 18,074 km above the Moon. It’s almost liked the universe itself was applauding this achievement, a tribute to the incredible minds behind ISRO.

And oh, the manoeuvres! The propulsion module played its part, like a conductor leading an orchestra of thrusters, guiding the lander and rover to a circular polar lunar orbit, at a perfect 100 km above the Moon’s surface. The anticipation was high, and everyone could feel that history was being written.

The climax arrived on August 23, a date etched in courage and triumph. At 12:14 UT, the Vikram lander began its descent, a heart-pounding journey to the Moon’s surface. Nineteen minutes later, at 12:33 UT (6:03 p.m. in India), a new chapter was written as Vikram touched down in the Moon’s south polar region. Success was in the air, a tribute to the hard work, the dreams, and the resilience of everyone involved.

Now, as we take a breath and look back, we see a relay satellite and propulsion module still orbiting the Moon, connecting us to this incredible achievement. The lander and rover, designed to brave the lunar daylight, have become our emissaries in a world beyond.

Mission Objective

The three mission objectives are:

1)  Safe and Gentle Lunar Landing:

Chandrayaan-3 endeavours to showcase a meticulous and secure lunar landing. The mission’s core focus is to demonstrate not just a landing, but a soft and precise touchdown on the lunar surface. This achievement isn’t merely a technical feat; it’s a testament to the culmination of innovation and expertise that ISRO brings to the cosmic stage.

2) Rover’s Lunar Traverse:

Central to the mission’s objectives is the mobility of the rover on the Moon’s unique terrain. Chandrayaan-3 aims to unveil the rover’s ability to navigate the lunar landscape, a movement that holds promises of future exploration endeavours. As the rover roves across lunar plains and craters, it doesn’t just showcase its wheels’ prowess; it unveils humanity’s capability to explore distant frontiers.

3) Unveiling Lunar Enigmas:

Chandrayaan-3 embarks on an in-depth scientific exploration of the Moon’s mysteries. Through targeted in-situ experiments, the mission seeks to decipher the Moon’s hidden secrets and uncover its composition. Every data point collected adds to the tapestry of lunar understanding, revealing the celestial body’s origins, evolution, and intrinsic nature.

In essence, Chandrayaan 3’s objectives are woven together by the threads of precision, mobility, and exploration. With ISRO’s guiding hand, the mission sets out not only to achieve these goals but to etch a new chapter in humanity’s cosmic journey.

Spacecraft And Subsystems

In the panorama of space exploration, Chandrayaan 3 emerges as a beacon of ingenuity, determination, and scientific curiosity. Crafted by the adept hands of ISRO, this mission unfurls its story through three core components, each meticulously designed to unravel the mysteries of the Moon.

1. Propulsion Module: A Stalwart Journey Initiator

Propulsion Module-A Stalwart Journey Initiator- 13angle

The propulsion module stands as the gatekeeper to lunar exploration. A robust, box-like structure, it boasts a large solar panel and an imposing cylindrical mount, the Intermodular Adapter Cone, where the lander finds its anchor. This module shoulders a weight of 2145.01 kg, with the lion’s share reserved for its MMH + MON3 bi-propellant propulsion system, an engine for the mission’s aspirations. Fuelled by this propellant, generating 738 W of power, it propels the journey into the cosmos. S-Band communication keeps it tethered to Earth, while its attitude sensors, including a star sensor, Sun sensor, and Inertial Reference Unit with Accelerometer Package (IRAP), guide its trajectory with unwavering precision.

2. Lander (Vikram): Where It Touches The Lunar Surface

The Vikram lander stands as a tribute to Vikram Sarabhai, the visionary behind India’s space pursuits. This name isn’t just a title; it’s a cosmic legacy that encapsulates India’s exploration aspirations and scientific ambitions. It is the embodiment of Chandrayaan 3’s delicate lunar dance. A rectangular box, graced with four landing legs and an array of landing thrusters, Vikram’s task is to achieve a soft embrace with the Moon. With a weight of 1749.86 kg, including the 26 kg rover it carries, Vikram is fortified with solar panels flanking its sides, generating 738 W of power, reminiscent of the Sun’s warmth. Yet, Vikram’s true marvel lies in its sensors – accelerometers, altimeters, Doppler velocimeter, and star sensors, working in harmony to ensure a secure lunar touch. Reaction wheels dictate its orientation, while a bipropellant system with multiple engines, ranging from 58 N to 800 N, propels it confidently. An X-band antenna assumes the role of communication conductor, while the compartment dedicated to Pragyan, the rover, boasts a ramp that promises to unveil lunar secrets.

3. Rover (Pragyan): Unraveling Lunar Enigmas

Rover (Pragyan)-13angle

Pragyan, the rover christened “wisdom” in Sanskrit, is the heart of Chandrayaan 3’s in-depth exploration. A six-wheeled marvel, it roams with a mass of 26 kg and dimensions of 917 x 750 x 397 mm, endowed with navigation cameras and a 50 W solar panel. Pragyan’s mission is to decipher the lunar surface composition, unveil water ice presence, delve into lunar impact history, and fathom the evolution of the Moon’s atmosphere. Direct communication with the lander renders Pragyan an indispensable component in ISRO’s quest for lunar enlightenment.

As the symphony of Chandrayaan 3 reverberates, each component plays a pivotal role, harmonising aspirations, technology, and human endeavour. From the propulsion module’s launch to Vikram’s gentle touch and Pragyan’s exploration, this mission embodies India’s dreams of reaching the celestial horizon. Guided by ISRO’s relentless dedication, Chandrayaan 3 resonates as a testament to human resilience and the pursuit of scientific marvels.

Payloads- Lunar Exploration Tools

As Chandrayaan 3 unfurls its array of payloads, it doesn’t merely explore the Moon; it unravels its cosmic diary. These instruments are given below, meticulously chosen by ISRO, embody our curiosity and quest for lunar enlightenment.

1. Lander’s Scientific Instruments:

Thermal Mapping with ChaSTE: Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) is designed to decode lunar surface properties by measuring thermal conductivity and temperature. Its touch will reveal the Moon’s hidden thermal secrets.

Seismic Gaze with ILSA: The Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) embarks on a journey of seismic exploration. It aims to measure seismicity around the lunar landing site, offering insights into the Moon’s mysterious internal activities.

Plasma Insights through LP: The Langmuir Probe (LP) takes us closer to the lunar realm’s electrifying mysteries. It’s designed to monitor near-surface plasma density, unravelling the Moon’s interaction with the cosmic environment over time.

2. Rover’s Analytical Tools:

Chemical Composition Revelations with APXS: The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) stands as a cosmic detective, deducing the lunar surface’s chemical composition. Through its analysis, it unveils the elemental makeup and mineralogical mysteries that lie beneath.

Elemental Insights via LIBS: The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) steps onto the lunar stage with a cosmic spotlight. Its task is to determine the elemental composition—Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe—of lunar soil and rocks near the landing site. With every pulse, it reveals the lunar landscape’s elemental tales.

3. Propulsion Module’s Cosmic Observer:

Amid the cosmic voyage, the Spectro-polarimetry of the Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) instrument takes center stage within the propulsion module. This cosmic observer is dedicated to deciphering Earth’s story from the vantage point of the lunar orbit. Operating within the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 1–1.7 μm, SHAPE delves into spectral and polarimetric measurements, painting an intricate picture of our home planet’s essence.

As SHAPE captures Earth’s spectral dance, it doesn’t merely gaze; it interprets the hues, unravels the polarimetric intricacies, and deciphers the narratives written in light. With precision, it bridges the cosmic gap, offering insights into Earth’s vibrant tapestry from a lunar realm. This voyage of light, guided by ISRO’s vision, transcends boundaries and connects us to the very essence of our origin.

Orbital Insights

In the realm of cosmic navigation, Chandrayaan 3’s orbital parameters emerge as vital coordinates, guiding its lunar expedition with precision. These measures not only define the spacecraft’s trajectory but also offer insights into its journey’s intricacies.

Pericynthion Altitude: A Lunar Approach

The concept of pericentrin altitude holds cosmic significance. It refers to the point in the spacecraft’s orbit where it is closest to the lunar surface. At 153 kilometers (approximately 95 miles) above the Moon, Chandrayaan 3 ventures into its lunar approach, embracing the lunar realm with unmatched proximity. This attribute underscores the mission’s precision, offering a vantage point to conduct detailed observations and experiments.

Apocynthion Altitude: Touching Cosmic Heights

In contrast, apocynthion altitude refers to the point in the orbit where the spacecraft is farthest from the lunar surface. Standing at 163 kilometers, this altitude marks the pinnacle of Chandrayaan 3’s cosmic ascent. It is from this celestial height that the spacecraft gazes upon the Moon, unfolding a panoramic vista that encapsulates lunar landscapes and cosmic wonders.

These orbital parameters aren’t merely numbers; they’re the celestial coordinates that define Chandrayaan 3’s cosmic choreography. They guide its journey, offering insights into the spacecraft’s proximity to the lunar realm and its interplay with cosmic forces. With pericynthion and apocynthion altitudes as its guides, Chandrayaan 3 embarks on a voyage that echoes the cosmic rhythms of our lunar companion.

Unveiling Vikram Lander

Within Chandrayaan 3’s cosmic ensemble, the Vikram lander emerges as a celestial protagonist, poised for a gentle rendezvous with the lunar landscape. Its attributes and landing details reflect the culmination of human innovation, cosmic precision, and the quest for lunar understanding.

Crafted Name: Vikram Lander

The Vikram lander stands as a tribute to Vikram Sarabhai, the visionary behind India’s space pursuits. This name isn’t just a title; it’s a cosmic legacy that encapsulates India’s exploration aspirations and scientific ambitions.

Landing Date: Cosmic Embrace

On the 23rd of August 2023, at 12:32 UTC, the lunar surface witnesses a celestial moment as the Vikram lander makes its graceful descent. This timing isn’t just a date; it’s a culmination of countless calculations, cosmic coordination, and the unwavering commitment of the ISRO team.

Landing Site: Shiv Shakti Point

The Vikram lander’s destiny finds its name at the Shiv Shakti point, a celestial marker on the lunar landscape. Situated at coordinates 69.373°S and 32.319°E, this landing site echoes with reverence and strength, embodying India’s connection with the cosmos.

Landing Landscape: A Lunar Stage

Within the lunar embrace, the Vikram lander nestles between Manzinus C and Simpelius N craters. This choice of locale isn’t arbitrary; it’s a calculated decision, a landing stage chosen with precision to gather insights into the lunar landscape and unravel its hidden mysteries.

These attributes aren’t just technical details; they’re the cosmic essence of Vikram’s journey. From its crafted name to its landing site, each facet encapsulates human aspiration, innovation, and the quest to touch the cosmic unknown. As Vikram embarks on its lunar odyssey, it carries with it the dreams and hopes of a nation that reaches for the stars.

Mission Life

Chandrayaan 3’s mission duration is composed of distinct chapters:

Propulsion Module: Orbital Shepherd

The propulsion module serves as a celestial guide, ferrying the lander and rover to a lunar orbit spanning 100 by 100 kilometers (62 mi × 62 mi). It sustains its journey for up to six cosmic months, steering the experimental payload through the cosmic sea.

Lander Module: A Lunar Day’s Embrace

With grace, the lander module touches the lunar surface, engaging in a delicate dance with the lunar light. It embraces a solitary lunar daylight period, equivalent to 14 Earth days. In this ephemeral moment, the lander’s instruments awaken, capturing the essence of the Moon’s mysteries under the celestial spotlight.

Rover Module: Wheels on Lunar Soil

The rover module embarks on a captivating lunar journey, etching its wheels’ tales across the lunar plains and craters. With vigor, it traverses the lunar landscape during its own lunar daylight period of 14 Earth days. Each stride marks a new chapter in human exploration, as the rover’s wheels become cosmic scribes of lunar exploration.

Amidst the cosmic ballet of durations, Chandrayaan 3 navigates lunar phases with unwavering determination. It’s a journey where time and exploration intertwine, guided by ISRO’s visionary touch. Chandrayaan 3 doesn’t merely measure time; it measures our relentless quest for understanding the cosmic tapestry.

Use of Sanskrit Naming In Chandrayaan-3

The origin of names within India’s Chandrayaan-3 lunar mission unveils a unique narrative interwoven with the echoes of Sanskrit, one of the world’s oldest languages. As India rejoices in the success of its homegrown lunar endeavour, a spotlight shines on not just scientific accomplishment, but also the linguistic roots that anchor this cosmic pursuit.

At the heart of this exploration stands Sanskrit, a language that traces its lineage back through centuries. Once in decline, it now experiences a resurgence, finding a new purpose in the nomenclature of Chandrayaan-3’s components.

The Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft itself derives its name from this ancient tapestry. In Sanskrit, “Chandra” signifies “moon,” while “yaan” translates to “craft” or “vehicle.” This amalgamation elegantly captures the essence of the mission, encapsulating its cosmic voyage to the lunar realm.

In parallel, the rover Pragyan treads carefully on the moon’s surface. Its name, deeply rooted in Sanskrit, means “wisdom.” This linguistic choice draws from Sanskrit’s rich literary and philosophical heritage, underlining the language’s significance beyond its historical context.

Sreedhara Somanath, Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), shared that Sanskrit possesses a unique prowess in conveying scientific concepts due to its structural intricacies. It serves as a conduit for expressing complex thoughts and processes with eloquence.

As Chandrayaan-3 elevates India’s cosmic narrative, it also illuminates the potential of language to bridge the realms of science and heritage. This fusion of past and present, science and linguistics, forms a cosmic symphony that resonates with the nation’s pursuit of knowledge and the allure of the celestial unknown.

The Motive Behind Chandrayaan-3's South Pole Landing

The Motive Behind Chandrayaan-3's South Pole Landing- 13angle

Chandrayaan-3’s successful landing near the moon’s south pole holds significant global attention, underlining a burgeoning interest in this region. India’s achievement, becoming the fourth country to reach the moon’s surface after the Soviet Union, the U.S., and China, marks a historic milestone. More remarkably, India’s ISRO scripted history as the first to touch down at the southern lunar pole.

This notable feat was celebrated by ISRO through a tweet that echoed Chandrayaan-3’s triumphant words: “I reached my destination, and you too!”

Chandrayaan-3's successful landing- 13angle.com

However, Chandrayaan-3’s accomplishment aligns with a larger global aspiration. NASA, in its Artemis 3 mission set for around 2025, aims to return astronauts to the lunar surface, with the added significance of including the first woman and a person of color. Even before that, NASA’s Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) is scheduled to explore the southern pole during a 100-day mission in 2024. Meanwhile, China’s expanding space endeavours plan to dispatch the Change 7 mission to the lunar south pole in 2026, accompanied by a new moon rover.

What fuels this intense interest in the lunar south pole?

The driving force is remarkably pragmatic – the presence of water ice. The scientific and practical significance of water cannot be overstated. Beyond its role as a life-sustainer, water offers versatile applications, including equipment cooling and potential rocket fuel. The allure of harnessing lunar water resources for sustenance and powering future missions, including those venturing to Mars, is a compelling incentive.

This heightened focus on the lunar south pole signifies a shift toward sustainability and forward-thinking in space exploration. The capacity to tap into local resources for crucial needs like hydration, machinery cooling, and generating breathable air and fuel is poised to redefine space missions.

Furthermore, water’s significance extends to its scientific potential. It offers insights into the moon’s geological history, including past volcanic and impact events. While water ice has been detected across the moon’s surface, the poles hold the most significant reservoirs.

The choice to target the lunar south pole is strategic. The region’s unique lighting conditions create a stark contrast – sunlit areas are confined to elevated peaks, while low-lying regions remain permanently shadowed. These shadowed regions maintain incredibly low temperatures, preserving water ice in perpetuity.

Chandrayaan-3’s landing in this region signifies India’s recognition of the lunar south pole’s immense scientific and practical value. As space agencies gear up for extended lunar stays and ambitious explorations, the quest for accessible water resources takes center stage. Chandrayaan-3’s success is emblematic of a collective aspiration to uncover the mysteries of the moon’s south pole, while also leveraging its resources for the advancement of human space exploration.

Domestic Pride & Celebration

As the news of Chandrayaan 3’s triumphant lunar voyage rippled across the nation, a wave of domestic pride swelled. Congratulatory messages echoed, honouring the tireless dedication of the ISRO team that scripted this cosmic achievement.

In the heart of the celebration, Prime Minister Narendra Modi stood at the ISRO Telemetry, Tracking, and Command Network in Bengaluru, a witness to the culmination of ISRO’s relentless efforts. With pride in his voice, he not only congratulated the team but also etched a historic moment into the annals of cosmic exploration.

It was at this juncture that Prime Minister Modi, with a touch of reverence, christened the landing site of the Vikram lander. In a gesture that resonated with the nation’s spirituality and reverence for cosmic wonders, he declared it the “Shiv Shakti point.” This name carried the essence of strength and divinity, an emblem of India’s connection with the cosmos.

Continuing the momentum of celebration, Prime Minister Modi declared August 23, the very day the Vikram lander embraced the lunar surface, as National Space Day. This announcement wasn’t merely symbolic; it was an embodiment of India’s journey into the cosmos, a testament to its aspirations, and a recognition of the scientific strides taken under ISRO’s visionary guidance.

The nation rejoiced not only in the scientific success but also in the spirit of unity and discovery that Chandrayaan 3’s triumph encapsulated. This moment, etched in the hearts of millions, celebrated India’s cosmic ambitions and marked a resounding tribute to its scientific prowess.

Recent Updates On ISRO's Chandrayaan-3 Mission

August 23:

  • Following the successful soft landing, ISRO unveiled the first image from Vikram’s camera, showcasing part of the landing site and the lander’s leg.
  • The agency established communication between the lander and Mission Operations Complex in Bengaluru.
  • Images from the Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera during descent were also released.

August 24:

  • Chandrayaan-3’s robotic rover embarked on its lunar journey, with mobility operations initiated and all Lander Module payloads activated. Activities proceeded on schedule, and all systems remained normal.

August 25:

  • ISRO shared a video of the Pragyan rover rolling out of Vikram lander and walking on the lunar surface, powered by solar panels.
  • Another video depicted the seamless deployment of a two-segment ramp facilitating Pragyan’s rollout.
  • The same day, ISRO reported Pragyan rover covered about eight meters on the lunar surface, with all payloads across the propulsion module, lander module, and rover functioning nominally.

August 26:

  • ISRO announced the accomplishment of two of three mission objectives, while in-situ scientific experiments continued.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi designated the landing spot as “Shiv Shakti Point,” August 23 as “National Space Day,” and named the Chandrayaan-2 crash site “Tiranga Point.”

August 27:

  • ISRO disclosed a temperature variation graph of the lunar surface, surprising experts with higher recorded temperatures on the Moon.
  • Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) collected data to comprehend lunar thermal behavior.
  • Rover Encounters 4-Meter Crater During Lunar Mission: On August 27, 2023, the Rover encountered a 4-meter diameter crater situated just 3 meters ahead of its current position. Prompted by the discovery, the Rover was instructed to backtrack along its path for further investigation.

August 28:

  • ISRO informed that Pragyan safely navigated a new path after encountering a crater during its exploration.
  • The rover adjusted its route, demonstrating its adaptability in lunar conditions.

August 29:

        Extensive elemental analysis by Chandrayan 3 mission- 13angle          Extensive elemental analysis by Chandrayan 3 mission LIBS Report Graph- 13angle    

Chandrayaan 3’s groundbreaking discovery:-

  • Detection of oxygen on the moon’s surface.
  • Active hunt underway for hydrogen, a vital component for future lunar missions.
  • South pole region yields surprising revelation: Presence of sulphur confirmed.
  • Global astonishment as the moon unveils its hidden marvels through Chandrayaan 3’s findings.
  • Extensive elemental analysis showcases diverse elements: silicon, calcium, iron, chromium, titanium, manganese, and aluminum identified on the lunar surface.

August 30:

August 30 update of Rover- 13angle

  • The Pragyan rover successfully snapped a photograph of the Vikram lander using its navigation camera on a Wednesday morning.
  • ISRO humorously captioned the image release tweet with “Smile, please!” showcasing their excitement for the achievement.
  • ISRO officially unveiled the image through its X (formerly Twitter) account, informing that the NavCam aboard the rover captured this “mission image.”
  • Chandrayaan-3’s recent update coincides with the rover’s progress, now navigating the lunar surface and contributing to the mission’s objectives.
  • The rover’s tasks encompass exploring craters and analyzing the Moon’s elemental composition.
  • Notably, the Vikram lander and the Pragyan rover face severe environmental challenges on the Moon, with temperatures plunging to -130°C due to the absence of sunlight.
  • As the rover continues its exploration, its state life on the lunar surface remains limited to one lunar day, which is approximately 14 Earth days.
  • ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 mission continues to illuminate the frontiers of lunar exploration, unraveling the mysteries of Earth’s celestial neighbor one captivating image at a time.
  • ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 mission continues to illuminate the frontiers of lunar exploration, unraveling the mysteries of Earth’s celestial neighbor one captivating image at a time.

Top 13 Interesting Facts

  1. Historic Lunar Landing: Chandrayaan-3 achieved a significant milestone by successfully landing near the moon’s south pole, making India the fourth country to achieve a lunar landing after the Soviet Union, the U.S., and China.

  2. Global Interest: The mission’s landing near the lunar south pole has captured global attention, highlighting the growing interest in this region for space exploration.

  3. ISRO’s Triumph: India’s ISRO celebrated the achievement with a tweet echoing Chandrayaan-3’s triumphant words on the lunar surface: “I reached my destination, and you too!”

  4. Strategic Choice: The decision to target the lunar south pole was strategic, given its potential for scientific discovery and resource utilization.

  5. Artemis 3 Mission: Chandrayaan-3’s landing aligns with NASA’s Artemis 3 mission, which plans to return astronauts to the moon around 2025, marking a significant step in lunar exploration.

  6. VIPER Mission: NASA’s Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) is set to explore the lunar south pole in 2024, contributing to the global interest in this region.

  7. China’s Ambition: China’s space agency also plans to explore the lunar south pole with its Change 7 mission in 2026, accompanied by a new moon rover.

  8. Water Ice Significance: The driving force behind the lunar south pole’s attraction is the presence of water ice, offering practical applications like equipment cooling and potential rocket fuel.

  9. Sustainability Focus: Chandrayaan-3’s mission symbolizes a shift towards sustainability in space exploration, highlighting the significance of utilizing local resources.

  10. Scientific Exploration: The lunar south pole’s water ice also holds scientific value, offering insights into the moon’s geological history and potential as an asteroid impact tracker.

  11. Unique Lighting Conditions: The region’s unique lighting conditions, with elevated peaks sunlit and low-lying areas perpetually shadowed, make it an ideal location for preserving water ice.

  12. Chandrayaan-3’s Impact: India’s successful landing underscores the country’s recognition of the lunar south pole’s immense scientific and practical importance.

  13. Collective Aspiration: Chandrayaan-3’s achievement reflects the collective global aspiration to uncover lunar mysteries and leverage resources for the advancement of human space exploration.


In the twilight of the lunar surface, as Chandrayaan-3 successfully marked its presence near the moon’s south pole, India etched its name in the annals of space exploration history. The triumphant landing not only cemented India’s position as the fourth nation to achieve this remarkable feat but also showcased its commitment to pushing the boundaries of innovation and scientific discovery. With each milestone achieved, the mission reverberated across the global landscape, igniting curiosity and inspiring a collective sense of wonder.

As ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 journeyed through the cosmos, it carried with it not just scientific instruments but also the hopes and aspirations of a nation. The strategic choice to delve into the mysteries of the lunar south pole demonstrated India’s holistic approach, blending linguistic heritage and technological prowess. The incorporation of Sanskrit names for mission components symbolized a bridge between ancient wisdom and cutting-edge exploration, highlighting the nation’s ability to harness the past to power the future.

In this era of cosmic exploration, Chandrayaan-3’s success is more than a mere achievement; it’s a beacon of resilience and human ingenuity. As other space agencies prepare to tread the same path, the lunar south pole emerges as a focal point of curiosity and endeavour. The allure of water ice, a potential resource for life support and propulsion, resonates as a pivotal factor in charting the course for humanity’s extended sojourn beyond our planet.

Looking ahead, Chandrayaan-3 becomes a stepping stone for India’s futuristic endeavours. It paves the way for continued lunar exploration, unravelling the mysteries of our celestial neighbour and transforming its vast expanse into a realm of scientific revelation. With every new venture, the collective passion of ISRO’s team, led by visionaries and experts, will propel India towards new frontiers, enriching not just our scientific knowledge but also inspiring generations to come.

In conclusion, Chandrayaan-3’s triumphant landing stands as a testament to India’s audacity to dream, its courage to undertake unprecedented challenges, and its tenacity to transform dreams into reality. As the nation’s quest for knowledge stretches towards the cosmos, Chandrayaan-3’s resounding success beckons a future where boundaries are constantly redefined, and the celestial canvas becomes a tapestry of innovation and inspiration.

Some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Chandrayaan-3 is a lunar exploration mission conducted by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) with the aim of landing a rover on the moon’s surface.

Chandrayaan-3’s landing near the moon’s south pole is significant due to the region’s potential for scientific discoveries and resource utilization, particularly the presence of water ice.

The use of Sanskrit names for Chandrayaan-3 components symbolizes India’s blending of linguistic heritage and technological innovation, showcasing a holistic approach to space exploration.

Artemis 3 is NASA’s mission to return astronauts to the moon around 2025. Chandrayaan-3’s landing aligns with the goals of lunar exploration shared by both missions.

Apart from ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3, NASA’s VIPER mission and China’s Change 7 mission are also set to explore the lunar south pole in the coming years.

Water ice at the lunar south pole holds scientific significance as it offers insights into the moon’s geological history and lunar volcanoes, and even acts as an asteroid impact tracker.

Shadows in the region create permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) where temperatures drop drastically, allowing water molecules to freeze and remain preserved.

Chandrayaan-3’s successful landing reflects India’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of innovation, resilience, and its ability to achieve milestones in space exploration.

Chandrayaan-3’s achievements inspire curiosity and wonder, motivating future generations to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and space exploration.

Chandrayaan-3 serves as a stepping stone for India’s futuristic endeavours, paving the way for extended lunar exploration and continued advancements in space technology.

Chandrayaan-3’s lander carries instruments like Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) and the Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA). The rover carries an Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) and a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS).

The use of Sanskrit names for mission components highlights India’s cultural heritage and showcases the language’s suitability for conveying complex scientific concepts and processes.

Chandrayaan-3’s success underscores India’s dedication to sustainable space exploration by emphasizing the importance of utilizing local resources and ensuring long-term presence in space.

Future missions, including those to Mars, could benefit from the water ice resources by using it for life support, equipment cooling, and potential rocket fuel, thus enabling sustainable space endeavours.

Chandrayaan-3’s success fosters global collaboration by inspiring other space agencies and nations to join forces in unravelling lunar mysteries and exploring the potential of the moon’s resources.

Chandrayaan-3’s achievements serve as a source of inspiration for India’s young minds, motivating them to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and space exploration.

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