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Indian Modern History And Their Top 13 Interesting Fact

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INC (Indian National Congress) :-

  • Indian National Congress.

  • Established in 1885 (Bombay).

  • Viceroy of India at that time was Lord Duffrin.

=> 4 meetings were held when INC was established :-

YearPlace of meetingPresident of INC
1885BombayW.C banarjee
1886CalcuttaD.B Nairoji
1887MadrasB. Taiyabji
1888AllahabadGeorge Yule

=> Founders of Indian National Congress (INC) were:-

A.O Hume- 13angle.comDadabhai Naoroji- 13angle.comEdulji Wacha Photo- 13angle.com

A.O Hume

Dadabhai Naoroji

Edulchee Wacha (He was a Parsi)

Bengal Partition :-

  • Partition of Bengal was held in 1905 AD.

  • Lord Curzon was the Viceroy on that time.

  • On 16th october 1905, Bengal was bifurcated into two halves. One half becomes East Bengal and second half becomes West Bengal.

  • The name given to newly formed East Bengal was Decca. And name given to West Bengal was Calcutta. Later Calcutta becomes West Bengal and in 1971 East Bengal (After independence in 1947 it becomes Pakistan) becaomes Bangladesh.

  • British Government has announced that in october be will bifurcate Bengal into two halves.

  • In august month, Surendranath Banarjee launched a meeting and they launched Swadeshi movement in the year 1905.

  • The main objective of Swadeshi movement was Surendranath Banarjee requested people not to accept anything made by British Government. It means to boycott things made by British Government. He requested to use Indian made things.

Muslim League Party :-

  • In 1906, Muslim League Party comes into existance.
  • Agha Khan and Salim Ullah Khan.
  • It was established in Dhaka but its headquarter was in Lucknow.
  • Main motto of Muslim league were: To give and protect the rights of Muslims.

=> In 1907, Surat spilit (Congress Dividation) :-

  • Congress meeting held in Surat. At that time, two types of thoughts start floating in congress party :-
  1. Old People (Aged People): There saying was that they will open dialogue with britishers and ask for their rights for india’s independence.

  2. Young People: There saying was that we get freedom only by fighting not from dialogue. We have to do the same as britishers are doing with us.

This meeting was called and organised under the leadership of  Ras Bihari Ghose. The aim of calling the meeting was to unite two thoughts into one. But it doesnot went with the thought and results congress got spilited into two halves :-

1. Congress (Divide-1907) :-

  • Naram dal (Moderate People Group)– Some important leaders are- Gopal Krishna Ghokle.

 

  • Garam Dal (Extremist Group)– Young important people group. Some leaders are- Lal/Bal/Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal).
Gopal Krishna Gokhale- 13angle.comLala Lajpat Rai- 13angle.comBal Gangadhar Tilak- 13angle.comBipin Chandra Pal- 13angle.com
Gopal Krishna GhokleLala Lajpat RaiBal Gangadhar TilakBipin Chandra Pal

 

 

2. In 1909 :-

  • Marle Minto bill was launched. It was launched by Lord Marle and Lord Minto.

  • The bill states that from now onwards communal elections will held in India.

  • This bill is also known as ‘The first dividing nail between Hindus and Muslims’.

  • This was the same bill which puts the base of Pakistan.

  • Muslims leaves the congress party and joined Muslim League.

3. In 1911 :-

  • Delhi darbar was organised under the leadership of lord hearding.

  • George V and Queen Mary were the cheif guests.

=> Announcements made by Britishers were :-

1. Delhi will become the capital of india.

{Before this announcement, Calcutta was the capital of India.}

2. West Bengal will further divided into two more halves :-

  1. One will be Orrisa.
  2. Second will be Bihar.

{In 1913, Bihar was created. Bihar was carved out of Bengal.}

3. Bengal partition will be abolished.

4. In 1913 :-

  • Gadar Party was established.

  • Lala Har Dayal- 13angle.com
    Lala Har Dayal

    Lala Hardayal was the founder of Gadar Party. And this party was established in San Francisco (U.S.A).

  • Creating party outside India acts as a backbone as many people lives outside India and these parties collected funds from them and sent back to India. Then from those funds Indians do protest here in India against Britishers.

5. In 1915 :-

  • Mahatama Gandhi returned back to India on 9th january 1915 from South Africa.

(We celebrate 9th January as NRI Day in India).

  • In South Africa, M.K Gandhi made his Aashram in Tolstoy, South Africa with the help of his friend Polak.

(Polak on that time protesting in South Africa for his rights.)

6. 1916 :-

  • Due to Lucknow pact two parties come closer Congress, Muslim League and Extremist Leaders.

  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak runs a movement named ‘Home Rule Movement’.

[Annie Besant supported Bal Gangadhar Tilak.]

  • Main objectives of Home Rule Movements are, according to Bal Gangadhar Tilak– we can not bring revolution until and unless youths are not with us. So, we have to make youths join the Home Rule Movement.

  • And they found a process that we will circulate newspapers among youths stating that how Britishers are exploiting us, how they passsed new bills which looks different from study & different in reality. So, by circulating newspapers, pamplets, we will motivate the youths.

=> Bal Gangadhar Tilak started two newspapers. And names of those two newspapers are as follows :-

Mahratta Newspaper- 13angle.comKesri Newspaper- 13angle.com

1. Maratha

2. Kesari

=> Annie Besant also launched two newspaper with an intention to support Bal Gangadhar Tilak and are as follows :-

  1. Common
  2. New India

7. In 1919 (1917-1919 ):-

  • 13 april 1919, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar.

  • 1st movement of Mahatma Gandhi called Champaran Movement in 1917.

  • Mahatma Gandhi second movement was Ahmedabad Mill Movement in 1918.

[In Ahmedabad Mill Movement M.K gandhi made ‘Hunger Strike’ his weapon.]

8. In 1920 :-

  • M.K Gandhi launched a movement called ‘Non Cooperation Movement’.
    M K Gandhi- 13angle.com
    M K Gandhi

=> According to this movement :-

  1. We will not cooperate with the British Government.
  2. We wont buy anything made by Britishers.
  3. We will use only Indian were items.
  4. M.K Gandhi returned his ‘Kesar-e-Hind’ title.
  5. Rabindranath Tagore also returned his ‘Knight Hood’ title.

=> Khilafat Movement was also launched in 1920 and was launched by Ali Brothers (Maulana Muhammad Ali and Saukat Ali) :

  1. In Turkey also, British Government was ruling and in Turkey Muslims unity were increasing rapidly. Britishers have a very age old concept that if they want to divide anyone they simply divide the land into two parts and with this they divide people.

  2. Those days in Turkey Khalifa used to rule and all Muslims used to listen Khalifa . So, britishers thought that if they want to rule there then they have to destroy the position of Khalifa in Turkey. As Muslims come to know about that all Muslims started protesting against Britishers and even Indian Muslims also supported them and started protesting against Britishers.

  3. As Britishers come to know that Muslims unity is increasing very rapidly. They setup Severs Treaty as they already saw that in Bengal leaders protested and to curve they divide Bengal into parts. So, on that concept Britishers decided to divide Turkey into parts.

  4. According to Severs Treaty, Britishers removed the designation of Khalifa. And slowly, Muslims all over the world becomes normal. And hence britishers captured Turkey.

9. In 1922 :-

  • In 1922, Non-Cooperation Movement which was launched by M.K Gandhi and Non-Cooperation Movement comes to and end in the same year 1922.

=> Chauri-Chaura case happened in 1922.

  1. Chauri-Chaura is a place situated in Gorakhpur, Uttar-Pradesh.

  2. Incident happened in Chauri-Chaura that was at police chowki, Indians put fire on police chowki results in the death of 23 police personnels and those 23 police personnels were burned alive. And all those police personnels were Britishers.

  3. And after that police arrested more than 1000 people (Indians) along with M.K Gandhi. M.K Gandhi also arrested and was ordered to be put under prison for the term of six years. But after sometime, M.K Gandhi was released on illness grounds.

[When M.K Gandhi comes to know about this incident he decided to end the Non-Cooperation Movement.]

10. In 1923 :-

  • Swaraj Party was formed in 1923.

  • Swaraj Party was made because at that time no big leader was out all of them were in jail. And for keep Indians motivated C.R Das comes in front along with Motilal Nehru.

  • Motilal Nehru- 13angle.com
    Motilal Nehru

    C.R Das (Chitranjan Das) and Motilal Nehru were the founders of Swaraj Party.

After that people who ere in jail started coming out slowely and then this party becomes (Swaraj+Congress Party).

  • Important leaders of Swaraj Party were: Subhas Chandra Bose, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel etc,.

  • In 1923, Swaraj Party united with congress and become very big party and upto that time M.K Gandhi already become the face of Congress Party.

C.R Das Photo- 13angle.com
C R Das

11. In 1924 :-

  • Ramprasad Bismil- 13angle.com
    Ram Prasad Bismil

    Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was founded and established by Ram Prasad Bismil.

  • HRA established in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.

  • The main objective behind making this association was :-

=> For Kakori Robbery case: They have to invade the train full of treasures. So that they can buy guns from that money.

  • Some famous members of HRA are :-

Chandra Shekhar Azad- 13angle.com
Chandra Shekhar Azad

=> Ram Prasad Bismil, Chandra Sekhar Azad etc.

  • Founder of HRA was Ram Prasad Bismil but real founder was Chandra Sekhar Azad.

  • In Kakori Robbery case 8000 rupees were robbed from 8 down train.

12. In 1928 :-

  • In 1928, Hindustan Socialist Republican Party was founded.

  • Chandra Sekhar Azad was the founder. And it was established in Firoz Shah Kotla, Delhi.

  • Main objective of HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) was to take revenge for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

  • In 1928, Simon Commission comes to India. Simaon comes to India to do a survey because Britishers were already watching that people of India are not like before because earlier Britishers brought any rules and regulations and people agreed. But now they don’t agree. So, they thought to bring the constitution for India and Britishers drafts according to their needs. So, they sent Simon to do survey and find drawbacks and submit the final report to the British Government.

  1. Simon Commission landed on Lahore Station. Simon Commssion team comprises of 7 members.
  2. Simon Commission also known as ‘White Man Commission’ because all the 7 team members were whites.
  3. Indians wanted that Simon Commission must include Indians also as team members. So that Indian tem member can put Indians point infront of them.
  4. During Simon Commission, Lala Rajpat Rai died. He was hit badly on his forehead. And due to this HSRA was formed.

[Bhagat Singh also joined HSRA because Lala Lajpat Rai was Bhagat Singh’s idol.]

13. Round Table Summit :-

=> Main reason was to bring constitution and also congress in the main stream.

(a) 1930(b) 1931(c) 1932
I. Congress boycott to visit 1st round table conference.But other leaders attained. Like M.A Jinnah, B.R Ambedkar etc.I. Congress participated.
II. M.K Gandhi represents Congress.
III. Sarojini Naidu also took part and represented Indian women.
IV. B.R Ambedkar demanded for Dalit Election.
V. M.K Gandhi was in favour of common election but not supported Dalit Election.
VI. After election all dalits choose B.R Ambedkar as their leader.
VII. Meanwhile, M.A Jinnah also demanded election for Muslims. After election Muslims choose M.A Jinnah as their leader.
I. Congress boycott the 3rd conference.
II. M.A Jinnah also boycotts the conference.
III. B.R Ambedkar attained the conference.

13. In 1932 :-

  • Poona Pact happened.

  • It was conducted by Rajendra Prasad and Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya. Rajendra Prasad and Pandit M.M Malviya made pact between M.K Gandhi and B.R Ambedkar so they can unite Indians. This pact took place in Poona Yarvada Jail.

    Rajendra Prasad- 13angle.comMadan Mohan Malviya- 13angle.comB.R Ambedkar
    Rajendra PrasadPandit Madan Mohan MalviyaB.R Ambedkar

 

14. World War II (1939-1945) :-

  • Britain took active part in World War-  II.

  • Expenditures were very heavy.

  • Main problem was most of the British Troops deployed in India.

  • In 1942, cripps mission entered India. And sir staford cripps was the head. And put condition infront of Congress that help us during this tough time and in return (When World War- II ends) we will liberate India and give authority to congress to run the country.

  • M.K Gandhi called this mission as post dated cheak.

  • Quit India movement was launched by M.K Gandhi on august 8, 1942 from Bombay.

  • M.K Gandhi gave a slogan “Do or Die”.

  • In quit India movement more than 60 thousand people were jailed and more than 10000 people were killed.

15. In 1945 :-

  • In 1939, when World War- II started, Subhas Chandra Bose resigned from Congress.

  • He made his own party “All India Forward Block” in West Bengal.

  • In 1942, Azad Hind Fauz was established by Ras Bihari Bose.

[Captain Mohan Singh was the first commander of Azad Hind Fauz. Later, Subhas Chandra Bose (Real Founder) took charge when Ras Bihari Bose took retirement.]

  • In 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose established Rani Laxmi Bai regiment.

[Azad Hind Fauz was the first army to recruit womens in the combat roles in the army.]

  • In 1946, Cabinet Mission enters in India. And cabinet mission comprises of three members :-
  1. Sir Pathrik Lawrance (Head).
  2. B Alaxendra.
  3. Sir Staford Cripps.

[This mission visited India to complete the formalities of Independence.]

  • On 20th feb 1947, Prime Minister climent attley declared that before 30th june 1947, India will be a free state. And for the completion of formalities Lord Mountbatten was made a viceroy. Lord Mountbatten announces on 2nd june 1947 that on 15th august 1947 India will be free state. But India will be bifurcated into 2 parts :-
  1. One will be Hindu state called Hindustan.

  2. One will be Muslim state called Pakistan.

  • Lord Mountbatten remembers the date 23rd march 1940, when M.A Jinnah announces from a big platform and demanded Pakistan for Muslims.

  • On 14th august, Pakistan was created and on 15th august 1947 India becomes free state.

[Remember:- In 1930, Civil Disobedience movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi.]

  • Britishers levied 10x (times) heavy tax on salt. In return Mahatma Gandhi challenged them that they will make their own salt and he travelled Sabarmati to Dandi and completed his journey in 24 days (It becomes a mass movement) around 50 thousand plus people joined him. And they make their own salt. And this movement is known as Dandi Movement/ Dandi March/ Salt Movement/ Civil Disobedience Movement.

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