Delhi Sultanate: 1206 AD- 1526 AD
Those who ruled from the throne of Delhi were known as ‘Sultan of Delhi’ or ‘king of Delhi Sultanate’.
Only those who ruled India, who ruled at the throne of Delhi.
In Delhi Sultanate, there were total 5 dynasties:-
- Slave / Mamluk Dynasty (1206-1290)
- Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320)
- Tughluq Dynasty (1320-1414)
- Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1450)
- Lodi Dynasty (1450-1526)
These 5 dynasties ruled in Delhi Sultanate only. While Mughal ruled all over India.
Rulers Of The Dynasties
|Qutb al- Din Aibak||1206-1210|
|Aram Shah||1210- 1211|
|Rukn ud din Firuz||1236|
|Muiz ud din Bahram||1240-1242|
|Ala ud din Masud||1242-1246|
|Ghiyas ud din Balban||1266-1287|
|Muiz ud din Qaiqabad||1287-1290|
1. Slave Dynasty (1206-1290) :-
They ruled 1206-1290 AD.
Founder of Delhi Sultanate- “Qutub-Ud-Aibak” .
The real founder of Delhi Sultanate- Iltutmish, Because when Qutub-Ud-Aibak was ruling. He made Lahore his capital, but Iltutmish made Delhi its capital.
The First Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate was Iltutmish because Qutub-Ud-Aibak never accepted the title of Sultan.
Qutub-Ud-Aibak was the commander of Muhammad Ghori.
[Remember: Qutub-Ud-Aibak accepted the title of ‘Malik’ which means ‘sub-ordinate/assistant’.]
=> Iltutmish runs two types of coins:-
|1.||Tanka (Silver coin)|
|2.||Jital (Copper coin)|
- Iltutmish established Sultan Ghari.
First mosque (Qwwat-Ul-Islam) was built by Qutub-Ud-Aibak in Delhi Sultanate.
‘Adhai Din Ka Jhopra’ was built by Qutub-Ud-Aibak in Ajmer.
=> Titles accepted by Qutub-Ud-Aibak are as follow:-
- Lakhbaksh (this title was given by people)
- Qutub Minar was established by Qutub-Ud-Aibak but completed by Iltutmish.
[Remember: Iltutmish was the slave of Qutub-Ud-Aibak. Later Iltutmish married Qutub-Ud-Aibak’s daughter.]
=> Razia Sultan (Slave Dynasty):-
She was married to Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia (Governor of Bathinda).
She was killed by her brother’s forces.
- Ruled-1236-1240 AD.
- She was the first and last Muslim ruler.
System opted by Razia Sultan are:-
- Quba / Qulah
[Quba=It means blazer]
[Qulah= It means cap]
- She does not opt Pardah System.
Coins issued by Razia Sultana were:-
- Silver (They were issued from Mints Lakhnauti (Ghor) Delhi]
- Billon (very rare)
- Gold (very rare)
- These coins were issued from her main Mint Delhi.
- Razia Sultan refused to be addressed as ‘Sultana’ title (Because Sultana means wife or mistress of Sultan). She adopted the title ‘Sultan’ instead of ‘Sultana’.
Razia Sultan accepted three names:-
- Nyay Ki Rani.
- Iltutmish Ki Beti.
- Delhi Sultanate Ki Maha Rani.
=> Balban (1265 AD-1288 AD) :-
- Balban was the first to introduce Persian culture in Hindustan.
- Balban issued coins named ‘Balbani Coin’.
- Balban introduced Nauroz Festival.
- Balban also introduced ‘Sajda’ and ‘Paibos’.
[Sajda= It means to bow.]
[Paibos= It means if you want to say something to Sultan then the first kiss his leg.]
- Balban was killed by the Mongols.
2. Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD) :-
Khilji dynasty ruled for 30 years. Out of those 30 years, Alauddin Khilji ruled 20 years.
The founder of the Khilji dynasty was Alauddin Khilji’s paternal uncle Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji (He ruled from 1290-1296 AD).
The most effective Sultan of Delhi Sultanate was Alauddin Khilji.
Alauddin Khilji ruled from 1296-1316 AD.
The real name of Alauddin Khilji was Ali Gursharp.
=> Taxes levied by Alauddin Khilji were :-
- Gharai (If you lived in the house)
- Charai (If you have cattle)
[Remember: Taxes were 50% at that time. That’s why he launched ‘Market Control System’.]
Alauddin Khilji also reformed his army ( He was the first Sultan to make his army professional and started the recruitment process).
Alauddin Khilji also put his army on the Salary System (He started the provision of the army).
Alauddin Khilji started Daag System and Huliyar System.
[Daag system= To put the permanent symbol on horses.]
[Huliyar system= He was the first Sultan to give uniform to his army]
|Hauz Khas||Alai Darwaza||Alai Minar||Chor Bazaar||Zamjat Khana|
- Alauddin Khilji established Hauz Khas.
Alauddin Khilji made Alai Darwaza, Alai Minar, Chor Bazaar in Delhi.
Alauddin Khilji built ‘Zamjat Khana’ in Delhi.
[Zamjat Khana = It means mosque]
Alauddin Khilji made ‘Siri’ his capital. At that time Siri fort was made by him.
When Alauddin Khilji attacked Gujrat and after capturing her he married with ‘Queen Of Gujrat’ and after that he sent her to his Harem. He was the first Sultan to marry the queen.
After that, he saw a boy who was very handsome whose name was ‘Malik Mani’. He bought that boy in 1000 Dinar and renamed him as ‘Malik Kafur’ also known as ‘Hazaar Dinari’. Alauddin Khilji trained ‘Hazaar Dinari’ and he was also very impressed with Hazaar Dinari’s sword fighting art and war tactics. Later, Alauddin Khilji made Hazaar Dinari his Commander in Chief.
[Some historians believe that there was a sexual relationship between Alauddin Khilji and Hazaar Dinari. Some historians also believe that Hazaar Dinari was transgender.]
Alauddin Khilji gave Hazaar Dinari the title of ‘Nayaab’.
When Alauddin Khilji was ill in 1316 AD, the Hazaar Dinari house arrested Alauddin Khilji. And later Hazaar Dinari slowly started giving slow poison to Alauddin Khilji and as Alauddin Khilji died Hazaar Dinari took off Alauddin Khilji’s son’s eyes.
After Alauddin Khilji’s death, Hazaar Dinari (Malik Kafoor) becomes Sultan for the time period of 36 days only. And then Hazaar Dinari was killed by Alauddin Khilji’s second son named Mubarak Shah Khilji.
Amir Khusroo was also known as ‘Tota-e-Hind’. He was a poet and also a sitar player. Amir Khusroo worked during Balban’s tenure also. But got recognition in Alauddin Khilji’s tenure.
[Remember: First musical instrument played in history was Vienna.]
3. Tuglaq Dynasty (1320-1414 AD) :-
Gyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325 AD) was the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty. He accepted the ‘Ghazi Title’. He was killed by his son ‘Jauna Khan’ in 1325 and Jauna Khan renamed himself as ‘Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’.
=> Gyasuddin Tuglaq got credit for two things :-
- Started postal services inside Delhi Sultanate.
- Built Canals.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq also known as ‘Pagal Raja’.
[Because his decisions were never right.]
- Jahadar Shah also known as Lampat Murkha Raja (He was Mughal) because he removed all taxes on Britishers and later Britishers put taxes on him.
- Rangeela Raja was Muhammad Shah (He was Mughal). He doesn’t like to wear clothes. And in his fort around 500 meters, no males were allowed only females were allowed. Later, Britishers took taxes from him also.]
Muhammad Bin Tuglaq made ‘Devgiri’ his capital.
Muhammad Bin Tuglaq introduced a token currency system. And he was also one of the most educated rulers of the Delhi Sultanate.
[Token currencies means ‘notes’. And the idea was taken from Mongolians but even that concept was not successful.]
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq introduced the agriculture department and he named the agriculture department as ‘Divan-e-Amir-Kohi’.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq :-
- He was the one who brought the inscriptions of Ashok in Hindustan from Nepal and at that time ‘Nepal’ was known as ‘Lugmi’.
- Jaunpur was established by Firoz Shah Tuglaq. And he established Jaunpur in the memory of Muhammad Bin Tuglaq.
- Jaunpur is also known as the ‘Siraj-e-Hind’ of Hindustan.
- Firoz Shah Tuglaq was the first ruler to collect Jajiya tax in the Delhi sultanate and earlier Jajiya tax was not collected by Women’s and Brahmins but Firoz Shah Tuglaq collected from Women’s and Brahmins also.
- Firoz Shah Tuglaq put taxes on canals and named as ‘Hak-e-Sarv’.
4. Sayyid Dynasty :-
Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan.
It has four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451 AD.
Khizr Khan was the former Governor of Multan.
Khizr Khan ruled from 1414 to 1421 AD.
Khizr Khan and his three successors occupied themselves in collecting revenues.
Khizr Khan’s successor named was Mubarak Shah And Alam Shah. But later they proved incapable.
Alam Shah abandoned Delhi for Badaun in 1448, after three years Bahlul Lodi who was already ruling Punjab seized Delhi and inaugurated Lodi’s. The last Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.
5. Lodi Dynasty :-
=> Bahlol Lodi :-
- Lodi Dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodi.
- Bahlol Lodi was the 1st Afghani to sit on the Delhi Sultanate throne.
- Bahlol Lodi introduced a coin named ‘Bahloli Coin’.
=> Sikandra Lodi :-
- Sikandra Lodi founded Agra city in the year 1504 and in 1506 he made Agra his capital.
- Sikandra Lodi introduced the measurement unit ‘Gaz-e-Sikandari’.
[Gaz-e-Sikandari= Unit to measure land]
- Sikandra Lodi used to wrote poems with the name ‘Gulrukhi’.
=> Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526) :-
- Ibrahim Lodi was the last ruler of the Lodi Dynasty.
- Ibrahim Lodi was the only ruler who was not liked by anyone.
- Ibrahim Lodi was very evil by his nature.
- The Battle of Panipat was fought between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi. And Ibrahim Lodi was killed by Babur in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. And here Lodi Dynasty ended.