Biography Of Prithiviraj Chauhan

Prithviraj Chauhan- 13angle.com

Rajput

  • Our mind creates an image of a warrior or a king when we hear anywhere the word Rajput. The history of Rajput has been so glorious and complimentary. From the 7th to 12th century India was ruled by the Rajput rulers. The Rajput word is found in scriptures like Mahabharata and Ramayana. Rajput is a cardinal caste of the Kshatriya class in the Hindu religion.
Rajput- 13angle- 13angle.com
  1. In ancient times, the prince and the people of the dynasty of the Kshatriya clan were known as Rajput.

  2. They were heroic warriors who have always followed and protected their religion.

  3. Rajputs had greatly expanded their kingdom by winning many wars.

  4. The capital of Rajput was Ajmer and they ruled the area of Delhi, Rajasthan, and the whole of north India.

Early Life And Childhood Of Prithviraj Chauhan

  • Many sources of information about Prithviraj and his history are available nowadays but there is no confirmed date of his birth. After reading many books and some historical reports, it is known that different dates have been written in many of them.

  • Chahamana king Someshvara was the father of Prithviraj and his mother was queen Karpuradevi.

  • According to Prithviraj Vijaya, Prithviraj was born on the 12th day of the Jyeshtha. Prithviraj and his younger brother were both born in Gujarat. There was no mention of the year of Prithviraj’s birth, but Prithviraj Vijaya provides some planetary positions by which Dashrath Sharma (A Well Known Historian) had calculated his birth year as 1166 CE.

  • According to Prithvi Rajya Mahakavya, Prithviraj was born on 1 June 1163 in Patan of Gujarat state some sources say that he was born in 1168 in Gujarat and some of them also say that he was born after many prayers of king Someshvara and Queen Karpura Devi.

  • After Prithviraj’s birth, there were many plots to kill him. But all their efforts failed because he did not let any of the opponent’s moves succeed.

  • Prithviraj was a prince so being the son of a king, he was brought up very well. No stone was left unturned in serving him.

  • Prithviraj was famous for his unique skill of shooting Shabdbhedi Baan which means he could hit the target accurately without seeing it. And this skill remained very useful to kill Muhammad

  • Prithviraj was well-educated He studied in Sarasvati Kanthabharanam. He achieved weaponry and war education. He was so courageous and mighty.

  • It is mentioned in Prithviraj Vijaya that Prithviraj was well known in 6 different languages and Prithviraj Raso says that he was an expert in 14 languages. Prithviraj Raso claims that he had mastered painting, military, mathematics, history, medicine, and philosophy, and He was also a specialist in controlling elephants and horses.

  • Chand Bardai was Prithviraj’s close friend and poet of his court. He always stayed with Prithviraj and served him as his brother. Even supported him till death. With Chand Bardai’s help, Prithviraj was successful in killing his worst enemy. It is said that they had killed each other. Because Prithviraj thought that it is better to die at the hands of a friend than to die at the hands of an enemy. Prithviraj Raso is written by Chand Bardai and is based on Prithviraj’s life.

Reign

  • Someshvar died in 1177 CE when Prithviraj was only 11 years old, then he moved from Gujarat to Ajmer. After their father’s death, he took over the power of the empire. But he was minor so ascended the throne with his mother as the regent. He ruled over north India around Delhi and Ajmer.
  1. According to Hamira Mahakavya, Someshver had installed Prithviraj on the throne and he went away to the Jungle.

  2. During that time Kadambavasa worked as chief minister in his reign. He was known by the names Kaimasa, Kailash, and Kaimbasa. He is credited for the victory of wars fought in the early years of Prithviraj’s reign. According to some reports, he was killed by Prithviraj. Prithviraj Raso claims that Prithviraj killed him after finding him in the Prithviraj-Prabandha claims that a man named Pratapa-Simha who hatched the conspiracy, inspired Prithviraj to kill Kadambavasa.

  3. But it did not claim to be correct, there is no incident mentioned in Prithviraj Vijaya because this is the only most believable of all sources.

  4. During the time of Prithviraj, Bhuvanaikamalla was also another important minister of his court. He was the uncle of Prithviraj’s mother. He served Prithviraj as Garuda served lord Vishnu. Prithviraj Vijaya claims that Bhuvanaikamalla was proficient in subduing the Nagas. 15th-century historians say the meaning of Nagas is Elephant; he was proficient in subduing Elephants.

  • Well-known historian Dashrath Sharma claims that Prithviraj assumed proper control of the administration in 1180 CE.
  1. As Prithviraj grew up, he was taught a lot of lessons and political education, because he could become a strong, intelligent person who could protect his kingdom well and get great fame in the whole country.

  2. Prithviraj’s name started reverberating all over the country because of his war strategy and education.

  3. When Prithviraj expanded his state many enemies and opponents became. Jaychand was one of them who opposed Prithviraj most.

  4. He won many wars and expanded his area, his state so big.

Conflicts With Other Kings

Conflicts with other kings- 13angle.com

1. Gudapura (Nagarjuna’s Conflict With Prithviraj)

  • Nagarjuna was a cousin of Prithviraj, the son of Prithviraj’s uncle Vigrahraja Chaturth (fourth).

  • According to Prithviraj, Nagarjuna revolted against Prithviraj. Nagarjuna was captured in Gudapura (Gurgaon in the present time).

  • Prithviraj’s first war was to fight with Nagarjuna and win Gudapura.

  • Prithviraj attacked infantry with the military of camels, elephants, and horses. Devbhata, who was general of Nagarjuna, continued to oppose.

  • Yet Prithviraj won. Then they caught Nagarjuna’s wife and mother. Prithviraj Vijaya claims that they had garlanded the heads of defeated soldiers on the fort.

2. Conflict With Bhudnakas

  • Bhudnakas is near Bhiwani, Rewari, and Alwar on today’s date. Bhudnakas dynasty had controlled the whole area around Bayana. It is mentioned in Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali in the debate of two Jain Monks that Prithviraj won the Bhudnakas. Sources claim that his war can be before 1182 CE.

3. Conflict With Chandelas

  • Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali claims that Prithviraj started Digvijay, which means he wanted to rule the whole world and make all the empires in his control.
  1. Jejakabhukti which is present in Bundelkhand nowadays was ruled by King Parmardi.

  2. The inscriptions of Madanpur claim that Prithviraj made destruction in Jejakabhukti in 1182-83 CE.

  3. Many folklores like Prithviraj Raso, Parmal Raso, and Alpha Raso have mentioned the attack of Prithviraj on Jejakabhukti.

  4. The texts like Sarangadhara Paddhati and Prabandha Chintamani also mentioned the attack of Prithviraj on Jejakabhukti.

  5. Turkic forces attacked Prithviraj when he was returning after marrying a daughter of Padamsen.

  6. They had won by escaping but they were so damaged, that they were seriously injured.

  7. Soldiers of Chahamana forgot the way and entered Mahoba, the capital of Chandela. Prithviraj’s force killed the royal gardener of Chandela and it is said that Prithviraj had distracted Mahoba very badly.

  8. Paramardi asked his general to attack Prithviraj but he advised him not to. But Paramardi’s brother-in-law Mahil Parihar provoked him to attack Prithviraj.

  9. Prithviraj defeated Udal’s squad and returned to Delhi. Udal was one of the important ministers of Paramardi.

  10. Then Udal and his brother Alpha went to Jaichand who was Gahadavala ruler of Kannauj and started serving for him.

  11. After some time Prithviraj attacked Chandela because Mahil Parihar informed him secretly that Chandelas had not their main soldiers (Udal and some of them). And Prithviraj captured Sirsagarh and the whole fort.

  12. Chandelas appealed for a truce and tried to recall Alha and Udal.

  13. Then Jaichand helped them with his army and his best generals. But Prithviraj had strong and well military soldiers so he won the war. According to some reports, Parmardi died at that time or he was retired then.

  • Pajjun Rai was appointed as governor of Mahoba and Prithviraj returned to Delhi. Although his son had regained power.

  • Madanpur’s inscriptions and some evidence claim that Paramardi didn’t die or retire. When Prithviraj returned to Delhi, he immediately started serving as sovereign. Then he again regained the rule in his hands.

4. Conflicts In Gujarat

  • It is considered that Prithviraj and Bhima Dvitiya(Second) were fought before 1187 CE.
  1. It is mentioned in Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali that after fighting, the peace treaty was signed between Prithviraj and Bhima second.

  2. Prithviraj Raso has mentioned that Kanhadev was Prithviraj’s uncle who killed seven sons of Bhima’s uncle. Then Bhima invaded the Chahamana kingdom and he killed Prithviraj’s father Someshvar.

  3. After that, Prithviraj again captured Nagor and killed Bhima.

  4. But this information also looks like a rumor because some evidence and historical reports claim that when Someshvara died then Bhima was a little child. So it didn’t look like he could not kill him and one also the reason is there that Bhima’s rule came after the death of Prithviraj.

  5. Prithviraj Raso claims that Prithviraj and Bhima Dvitiya(Second) both wanted to marry Ichchhini, princess of Abu. Because of this, there was a quarrel between them. But this thing sounds unrealistic because some historians claim that at that time Abu was ruled by another king. Prithviraj Raso and some inscriptions of Nagor claim there was a war that happened between Chalukyas and Chahamanas.

5. Conflict with Parmaras

  • King Dharavarsha was a Chandravati Parmar. The area around Mount Abu was powered by him. Partha-Parakrama-Vyayoga was written by Dharavarsha’s brother. And it has mentioned the war between Prithviraj and Dharavarsha. He said it was a failure for Prithviraj yet he recovered himself after some time.

Prithviraj’s Love Story And Conflict With Gahadavalas

Prithviraj’s love story and conflict with Gahadavalas- 13angle.com
  • Maybe many people know about the enmity between Prithviraj and Jaichand, and also know that the interesting story started when Prithviraj falls in love with Sanyogita daughter of Jaichand.

  • Jaichand is known as a traitor because he provided his army to Muhammad to defeat Prithviraj. 

  1. Some historians claim that he started his rule on 16 June 1168 CE and some of them claim that he started ruling from 21 June 1170 CE at Kannauj, mainly in the area around Gahadavala. He defeated Turks, Solankis of Gujarat, and Yadavas.

  2. Jaichand’s father was Vijay Chandra and his mother was Chandralekha. He had a son and daughter Harichandra and Sanyogita.

  3. Jaichand had a big and wealthy army. With his large army, he won many battles. But many people knew that he was a haughty man.

  4. After listening to compliments and praises of Prithviraj, Princess Sanyogita started to like him. It is said that after seeing his picture, she fell in love at first sight. Then Sanyogita sent a love letter secretly to Prithviraj with her picture, and after seeing her picture Prithviraj also fell in love at first sight. And they started loving each other. But Jaichand got to know about their relationship and that’s why he disliked.

  5. Jaichand wanted to expand his area to the whole country and proclaim his supremacy. So he conducted the Rajasuya ceremony. Many kings agreed but Prithviraj denied it because Prithviraj didn’t want to give the entire rule of the country to a haughty man.

  6. After the Rajasuya ceremony, Jaychand arranged swayamvara for the marriage of Sanyogita. He invited many kings from other provinces for that function but he didn’t invite Prithviraj to take revenge. But Sanyogita wrote a secret letter to inform Prithviraj that his father had arranged swayamvara for her and did not intentionally invite him.

  7. Prithviraj decided to go to swayamvara and get married to.

  8. On this side of king Jaichand’s court, he made effigies of Prithviraj and put them in many places to insult him.

  9. When the function of swayamvara started, Sanyogita went ahead and saw Prithviraj’s effigy and garlanded around its neck. Kings who were presented their felt very offended and Jaichand.

  10. Prithviraj took Sanyogita as he planned and challenged Jaichand for war in a crowded meeting and ran away. Jaychand’s soldiers tried to catch him but they could not do it. Prithviraj lost his two soldiers but he reached Delhi. That’s why Jaichand became so angry then he decided to take revenge on.

  11. Prithviraj lost support and prestige from many kings and people after listening to this incident and he also became guilty in their vision. Because it’s really wrong to pick up the girl from a crowded gathering.

  • According to Prithviraj Vijay, he fell in love with the incarnation of apsara. It talks about Sanyogita although he was married. But there is no information about legends like Prithviraj-Prabandha, Prabandha-Chintamani, Prabandha-Kosh, and Hammira-Epic. It is believed it should be before 1192 CE, before the war with Muhammad Ghor. Prithviraj Raso has also mentioned Prithviraj’s love story and conflict with Jaichand.  

Conflict With Ghurid

  • Chahamanas and Prithviraj faced many raids from the Muslim dynasties till the end of the 12th century.

  1. Mu’izz ad-Din Muhammad was Sultan of the Ghurid empire. He is also known as Muhammad Ghor or Muhammad Ghori.

  2. Muhammad’s conflict with Prithviraj when Muhammad tried to expand his area in the east since he had already spread his kingdom in states of the west like Punjab, Singh, and Peshawar.

  3. Prithviraj Vijaya mentions that Muhammad sent his judge to the court of Prithviraj to make a treaty. But Prithviraj rejected him.

=> Different sources claim severally number of wars between Prithviraj and Muhammad:-

  • There is no current number of battles between Prithviraj and Muhammad.
  1. Muslim writers mention only two battles between Prithviraj and Muhammad, which are the First Battle of Tarain and the Second Battle of Tarain. But they can do this to make Prithviraj look down because they believed Muhammad as their prime hero.

  2. According to some Hindu and Jain writers, they fought multiple times. And Prithviraj won most of the time, he was so kind so he had forgiven Muhammad every time. But Muhammad was like a devil, he could not defeat Prithviraj by fighting in the right way. In the end, Muhammad defeated him with the wrong policies of war and the help of Jaichand.

  3. Prithviraj Raso and Surjan Charita enumerate for 21 times Prithviraj and Muhammad fought and Prithviraj won major battles yet he released Muhammad. But in the last trial, Muhammad defeated him by the wrong war policies.

  4. Prabandha Kosha mentions that Prithviraj won 20 times but Mahummad won in the 21st trial.

  5. Prithviraj Prabandha mentions that Prithviraj and Muhammad fought 8 times.

  6. Hammira Mahakavya mentions that they fought seven times but then at the eighth trial Mahummad defeated him.

  7. Prabandha Chintamani gives the number of wars as 22 between Prithviraj and Muhammad.

  • But all this exaggerates the number because it is said that they could fight with Ghurids more than two times but some of them also count the number of battles when they succeed from raids of Ghurid’s generals. But the two wars are mentioned more often, which have we discussed the First battle of Tarain and the Second Battle of Tarain.

1. The First Battle Of Tarain (1190-1191 CE)

  • Muhammad Ghor invaded Chahamana. When Prithviraj listened to it, he marched with help of Govindaraja. A Muslim historian mentions that they had 2,00,000 horses and 3000 elephants.
  1. Muhammad planned to win Tabarhindah and return to his base. But when he knew about Prithviraj’s force, he decided to fight.

  2. Prithviraj and Muhammad fought in Tarain and this battle is known as The first battle of Tarain.

  3. Prithviraj defeated Ghori and was very injured. He and some soldiers ran back. But Prithviraj didn’t follow them.

2. The Second Battle Of Tarain (1192)

  • Prithviraj Raso claims that Prithviraj had spent his life before the last war with a lot of fun and enjoyment, he did not take much attention to the war of Muhammad. That’s why it is predicted that hed not prepared for any further war with Muhammad. On this side Muhammad, when returned to Ganja, was so angry and started preparing to fight with Prithviraj in a spirit of anger.
  1. According to Tajik and Turkic, Muhammad had selected 1,20,000 Afghani well-fighting worriers for his army. And he started to march towards Chahamana.

  2. Ministers of Prithviraj wrote a letter for Muhammad to take back his army and asked him to apologize to Prithviraj, if he did that he would be saved. But Muhammad had prepared a tremendous plan and strategy, so he didn’t do anything like that.

  3. But on this side, Prithviraj got some help from many of his neighbors or Hindu kings and also didn’t get help from many. And Jaichand was also on the list of them.

  4. Some historical reports say that Jaychand had invited Muhammad to fight with Prithviraj, and he also helped him with his soldiers to defeat Prithviraj.

  5. Yet Prithviraj had gathered a considerable army of 3,00,000 soldiers and 3000 elephants.

  6. Then Muhammad decided his soldiers to attack from different sides, and some attacked from the back and some attacked from the front as he planned and killed many soldiers of Prithviraj. But as we all know the power of Prithviraj and his warriors recovered to a great extent.

  7. Then Muhammad asked his army to retreat. Prithviraj and his soldiers tried to chase Muhammad. But Muhammad had a great plan, the last part of his army attacked Prithviraj from the back.

  8. And Defeated Prithviraj. Prithviraj lost a lot. Many soldiers of the army were killed and his brother was also killed.

  9. Not only on Chahamana, but Muhammad defeated all kings of the country. And ruled over India.

  10. It is said that even though he killed Jaichand because he thought who can get his daughter’s husband killed, will he become someone’s friend?
  • Prithviraj was the last ruler of the Hindu clan and Rajput.

The End Of The Rajput Rule

  • Because after Prithviraj was defeated by Muhammad, Muhammad started battles all over India. He defeated most of the kings. The Rajput rule was completely ended. Because no Hindu ruler could defeat Muhammad. That was the beginning of Muslim rule in India.

  • Many things are said that when he was defeated, then what did Muhammad do with Prithviraj. Some sources claim that Muhammad had killed Prithviraj there and some say Muhammad caught Prithviraj and took him to Afghanistan. 

The End Of Prithviraj And Muhammad

End of Muhammad! But why? Prithviraj was tied up, didn’t he?

  • Muhammad tied up Prithviraj and took him to Afghanistan and imprisoned him in prison. Muhammad advised Prithviraj to convert and become Muslim and start to serve him as his slave, if he does that he could be alive. But Prithviraj didn’t accept the offer, because he was a Hindu Rajput and conversion was not in his policies.

  • Prithviraj talked to Muhammad eye to eye that’s why Muhammad made him blind and tortured him badly.

  • Chandra Bardai (Author of Prithviraj Raso’s book) felt very bad after knowing the situation of Prithviraj. So he decided to take revenge on Muhammad as he was aware of Prithviraj’s archery skills.

  • Chand Bardai came to Afghanistan in the court of Muhammad. He proposed that Prithviraj is a master at shooting arrows without seeing the target so he should be given a chance for his skill demonstration. And Muhammad was fond of watching others’ skills and exhibitions so he consented and allowed to show Prithviraj’s skill to the whole court, he arranged a function for it.

  • Chand Bardai requested to meet Prithviraj so he could prepare Prithviraj for the archery competition. Muhammad allowed him, when he saw Prithviraj in such a position he felt very sad. Prithviraj asked him to have just one chance to kill Muhammad and take revenge.

  • Then Chand Bardai explained the plan to Prithviraj. He will secretly tell him, where Muhammad was sitting and he had to listen to his voice. He had to aim accurately and kill Muhammad. Prithviraj agreed and prepared for it.

  • The next day, Prithviraj was brought in front of the full assembly and the people of the state. And Muhammad ordered to demonstrate. Chand Bardai was close to Prithviraj and Muhammad went to a high place and sat down. Chand Bardai said to Muhammad that Prithviraj will shoot the arrow when he would order.

  • Chand Bardai explained to  Prithviraj about Muhammad’s position by singing a couplet. The couplet was that,

चार बाँस चौबीस गज, अंगुल अष्ट प्रमान

ता ऊपर सुल्तान है, मत चूके चौहान ।।

  • When Muhammad ordered Prithviraj to shoot. By hearing his voice he exactly located his position, and without wasting time he shot and killed Muhammad. Seeing this everyone’s eyes were torn apart. But people exclaimed more when Prithviraj and Chand Bardai killed each other. Finally, he took his revenge.

  • Prithviraj and Chand Bardai killed each other. Prithviraj thought dying at the hands of a friend is better than dying at hands of an enemy. Sanyogita also killed herself when she heard about Prithviraj.

  • Then Prithviraj’s tomb was built in Afghanistan. People used to insult Prithviraj by hitting slippers on his tomb. Even today the people of Afghanistan believe Muhammad is a hero to date.

Some Facts:-

  • We think Muhammad was a king of Ghuris but he came to India as a robber. In ancient times India was a well-developed country known for gold jewelry. Muhammad desired to rob India and become the richest person in the world.

  • Some historical reports claim that one mistake regretted most was he had forgiven Muhammad many times, he could kill him but he didn’t. Because Muhammad had apologized every time to release him and Prithviraj did but Muhammad was such a devil he had a strong desire to defeat Prithviraj and rule India.

Remains And Bones Of Prithviraj

Remains and bones of Prithviraj- 13angle.com
  • Sher Singh Rana was born on 17 May 1976. He was born in a Rajput family of Roorkee, in Uttarakhand. He is also known as Pankaj Singh Pundir. He was involved with politics and killed Phoolan Devi with a pistol. But wait, why are we talking about this man? What is the connection between him and Prithviraj?
  • When Sher Singh came to know about Prithviraj and there was Prithiviraj’s tomb out of the grave of Muhammad in Afghanistan. People insulted his tomb before going to the grave. So he decided to bring back Prithviraj’s bones and remains to India. He escaped from prison and went to a village near Ghazni, where Prithviraj’s tomb was made. He asked that people fix the Grave of Muhammad, then he excavated the tomb of Prithviraj and somehow he sent some clay to Itawah in April 2005. They built a temple and got the ashes kept in it.

  • That’s why Sher Singh Rana became a hero for a lot of people even though he had killed a woman. Because of him, we could get our great king’s ashes. Whoever hears this story becomes proud of him.

  • Sher Singh Rana was arrested in the case of the murder of Phoolan Devi. But he escaped from prison and when he was caught up by police, he said he had not run for him, he had a different purpose. And told about Prithviraj’s remains and bones.

Books Written On Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraj Chauhan-The Emperor of Hearts book- 13angle.com

Prithviraj Chauhan: The Emperor of Hearts

by Anuja Chandramouli

Prithviraj Chauhan a light on the mist in history paperback book- 13angle

Prithviraj Chauhan – A Light on the Mist in History

by Virendra Singh R.

Antim Hindu Samrat-Prithviraj Chauhan book

Antim Hindu Samrat :Prithviraj Chauhan

Hindi Edition | by Bimla Devi Rampal

Prithviraj Chauhan book

Prithviraj Chauhan

Hindi Editon | by Jiya Kanwar

Prithviraj Chauhan gujrati edition book- 13angle

Prithviraj Chauhan

Gujarati Edition

Prithvi Raj Raso Mahakavi Chand BardaI Krit book

Prithvi Raj Raso Mahakavi Chand BardaI Krit

Hindi Edition | by Kaviraj Mohan Singh

Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan book- 13angle.com

Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan

Marathi Edition | by Raghuveersingh Rajput

Mat Chooko Chauhan

Hindi Edition 

Top 13 Interesting Facts About Prithviraj Chauhan

  1. Prithviraj was so brilliant, daring, and very strong. These things about him we can understand from one of his childhood incidents, where he killed a lion without any weapon.

  2. Along with being brave, he was also so attractive and handsome. That’s why Sanyogita started liking him.

  3. Prithviraj was the last Hindu ruler, after his last war, the Muslim rule was established.

  4. Prithviraj was very merciful, even the enemy had a chance to improve. It is said that he had forgiven Muhammad many times.

  5. Prithviraj Raso is a Brajbhasha poem about the life of Prithviraj Chauhan. This book was written by Chand Bardai, his friend.

  6. Defeating Nagarjuna was the first achievement of Prithviraj Who was a cousin of Prithviraj.

  7. Prithviraj had defeated the king of Gujarat at a very young age.

  8. Delhi, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana are the present-day’s states in which Prithviraj ruled.

  9. Some films/tv serials are made on the greatness of Prithviraj and his love story.

  10. Prithviraj had six children, Jhodha, Govindaraja IV, Bhirda, Laikha, Talkha, and Shaikha.

  11. Prithviraj Raso is called the first epic of the Hindi language which is a poem written about the life of Prithviraj.

  12. Prithviraj was so bright, learning any skills faster and being a master in it, that was his quality.

  13. Muhammad made him blind yet he took revenge. Chand Bardai described Muhammad’s location through a couplet. Which goes like,

 चार बाँस चौबीस गज, अंगुल अष्ट प्रमान ।

ता ऊपर सुल्तान है, मत चूके चौहान ।।

That means Muhammad is at a distance of 66 feet (चार बाँस), 72 feet (चौबीस गज), and 6 inches (अंगुल अष्ट) and Chand Bardai advised Prithviraj not to miss the chance.

Ronak Parmar- 13angle writer

Ronak Parmar

 

Writer

13angle